Next Article in Journal
Genomic Loads and Genotypes of Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Viral Factors during Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Chilean Hospitalized Infants
Next Article in Special Issue
Extracellular Vesicles as Therapeutic Agents in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Previous Article in Journal
Gene-Transformation-Induced Changes in Chemical Functional Group Features and Molecular Structure Conformation in Alfalfa Plants Co-Expressing Lc-bHLH and C1-MYB Transcriptive Flavanoid Regulatory Genes: Effects of Single-Gene and Two-Gene Insertion
Previous Article in Special Issue
Tumor Cell-Derived Microvesicles Induced Not Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition but Apoptosis in Human Proximal Tubular (HK-2) Cells: Implications for Renal Impairment in Multiple Myeloma
Review

Extracellular Vesicles Deliver Host and Virus RNA and Regulate Innate Immune Response

1
Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan
2
Japan Science and Technology Agency, PRESTO, 1-1-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Thomas Ritter, Matthew Griffin and Aideen Ryan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030666
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
The innate immune system plays a crucial role in controlling viral infection. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors, sense viral components called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger signals to induce innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, deliver functional RNA and mediate intercellular communications. Recent studies have revealed that EVs released from virus-infected cells deliver viral RNA to dendritic cells and macrophages, thereby activating PRRs in recipient cells, which results in the expression of type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, EVs transfer not only viral RNA but also host microRNAs to recipient cells. Recently, infection of hepatocytes with hepatitis B virus (HBV) was shown to affect microRNA levels in EVs released from virus-infected cells, leading to attenuation of host innate immune response. This suggests that the virus utilizes the EVs and host microRNAs to counteract the antiviral innate immune responses. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to the role of EVs in antiviral innate immune responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: innate immunity; microRNA; virus; extracellular vesicles innate immunity; microRNA; virus; extracellular vesicles
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Kouwaki, T.; Okamoto, M.; Tsukamoto, H.; Fukushima, Y.; Oshiumi, H. Extracellular Vesicles Deliver Host and Virus RNA and Regulate Innate Immune Response. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 666. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030666

AMA Style

Kouwaki T, Okamoto M, Tsukamoto H, Fukushima Y, Oshiumi H. Extracellular Vesicles Deliver Host and Virus RNA and Regulate Innate Immune Response. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(3):666. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030666

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kouwaki, Takahisa; Okamoto, Masaaki; Tsukamoto, Hirotake; Fukushima, Yoshimi; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki. 2017. "Extracellular Vesicles Deliver Host and Virus RNA and Regulate Innate Immune Response" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 3: 666. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030666

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop