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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 666;

Extracellular Vesicles Deliver Host and Virus RNA and Regulate Innate Immune Response

Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan
Japan Science and Technology Agency, PRESTO, 1-1-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Thomas Ritter, Matthew Griffin and Aideen Ryan
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
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The innate immune system plays a crucial role in controlling viral infection. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors, sense viral components called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger signals to induce innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, deliver functional RNA and mediate intercellular communications. Recent studies have revealed that EVs released from virus-infected cells deliver viral RNA to dendritic cells and macrophages, thereby activating PRRs in recipient cells, which results in the expression of type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, EVs transfer not only viral RNA but also host microRNAs to recipient cells. Recently, infection of hepatocytes with hepatitis B virus (HBV) was shown to affect microRNA levels in EVs released from virus-infected cells, leading to attenuation of host innate immune response. This suggests that the virus utilizes the EVs and host microRNAs to counteract the antiviral innate immune responses. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to the role of EVs in antiviral innate immune responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: innate immunity; microRNA; virus; extracellular vesicles innate immunity; microRNA; virus; extracellular vesicles

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kouwaki, T.; Okamoto, M.; Tsukamoto, H.; Fukushima, Y.; Oshiumi, H. Extracellular Vesicles Deliver Host and Virus RNA and Regulate Innate Immune Response. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 666.

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