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Oxidative Stress in Human Atherothrombosis: Sources, Markers and Therapeutic Targets
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Infectious Agents in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases through Oxidative Stress

Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University, Viale di Porta Tiburtina, 28, 00185 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2459;
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Vascular Diseases)
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that vascular oxidative stress is a critical feature of atherosclerotic process, potentially triggered by several infectious agents that are considered as risk co-factors for the atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). C. pneumoniae has been shown to upregulate multiple enzymatic systems capable of producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as NADPH oxidase (NOX) and cyclooxygenase in vascular endothelial cells, NOX and cytochrome c oxidase in macrophages as well as nitric oxide synthase and lipoxygenase in platelets contributing to both early and late stages of atherosclerosis. P. gingivalis seems to be markedly involved in the atherosclerotic process as compared to A. actinomycetemcomitans contributing to LDL oxidation and foam cell formation. Particularly interesting is the evidence describing the NLRP3 inflammasome activation as a new molecular mechanism underlying P. gingivalis-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Amongst viral agents, immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis C virus seem to have a major role in promoting ROS production, contributing, hence, to the early stages of atherosclerosis including endothelial dysfunction and LDL oxidation. In conclusion, oxidative mechanisms activated by several infectious agents during the atherosclerotic process underlying CVDs are very complex and not well-known, remaining, thus, an attractive target for future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: infectious agents; atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases; oxidative stress infectious agents; atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Di Pietro, M.; Filardo, S.; Falasca, F.; Turriziani, O.; Sessa, R. Infectious Agents in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases through Oxidative Stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2459.

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