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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2322; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112322

The Hypothalamic–Pituitary Axis and Autoantibody Related Disorders

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy
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Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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Abstract

This review summarized different studies reporting the presence of autoantibodies reacting against cells of the pituitary (APAs) and/or hypothalamus (AHAs). Both APAs and AHAs have been revealed through immunofluorescence using different kinds of substrates. Autoantibodies against gonadotropic cells were mainly found in patients affected by cryptorchidism and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism while those against prolactin cells were found in different kinds of patients, the majority without pituitary abnormalities. APAs to growth hormone (GH) cells have been associated with GH deficiency while those against the adrenocorticotropic cells have distinguished central Cushing’s disease patients at risk of incomplete cure after surgical adenoma removal. AHAs to vasopressin cells have identified patients at risk of developing diabetes insipidus. APAs have been also found together with AHAs in patients affected by idiopathic hypopituitarism, but both were also present in different kinds of patients without abnormalities of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis. Despite some data being promising, the clinical use of pituitary and hypothalamus autoantibodies is still limited by the low diagnostic sensitivity, irreproducibility of the results, and the absence of autoantigen/s able to discriminate the autoimmune reaction involving the pituitary or the hypothalamus from the other autoimmune states. View Full-Text
Keywords: autoimmunity; pituitary; hypothalamus; autoantibodies autoimmunity; pituitary; hypothalamus; autoantibodies
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Cocco, C.; Brancia, C.; Corda, G.; Ferri, G.-L. The Hypothalamic–Pituitary Axis and Autoantibody Related Disorders. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2322.

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