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The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of the Medicinal Plant Forsythia suspensa (Oleaceae)

College of Life Science, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, China
College of Plant Protection, Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University, Yangling 712100, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2288;
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chloroplast)
PDF [2431 KB, uploaded 31 October 2017]


Forsythia suspensa is an important medicinal plant and traditionally applied for the treatment of inflammation, pyrexia, gonorrhea, diabetes, and so on. However, there is limited sequence and genomic information available for F. suspensa. Here, we produced the complete chloroplast genomes of F. suspensa using Illumina sequencing technology. F. suspensa is the first sequenced member within the genus Forsythia (Oleaceae). The gene order and organization of the chloroplast genome of F. suspensa are similar to other Oleaceae chloroplast genomes. The F. suspensa chloroplast genome is 156,404 bp in length, exhibits a conserved quadripartite structure with a large single-copy (LSC; 87,159 bp) region, and a small single-copy (SSC; 17,811 bp) region interspersed between inverted repeat (IRa/b; 25,717 bp) regions. A total of 114 unique genes were annotated, including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA, and four rRNA. The low GC content (37.8%) and codon usage bias for A- or T-ending codons may largely affect gene codon usage. Sequence analysis identified a total of 26 forward repeats, 23 palindrome repeats with lengths >30 bp (identity > 90%), and 54 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with an average rate of 0.35 SSRs/kb. We predicted 52 RNA editing sites in the chloroplast of F. suspensa, all for C-to-U transitions. IR expansion or contraction and the divergent regions were analyzed among several species including the reported F. suspensa in this study. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-plastome revealed that F. suspensa, as a member of the Oleaceae family, diverged relatively early from Lamiales. This study will contribute to strengthening medicinal resource conservation, molecular phylogenetic, and genetic engineering research investigations of this species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Forsythia suspensa; sequencing; chloroplast genome; comparative genomics; phylogenetic analysis Forsythia suspensa; sequencing; chloroplast genome; comparative genomics; phylogenetic analysis

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Wang, W.; Yu, H.; Wang, J.; Lei, W.; Gao, J.; Qiu, X.; Wang, J. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of the Medicinal Plant Forsythia suspensa (Oleaceae). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2288.

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