Next Article in Journal
Challenges and Strategies for Improving the Regenerative Effects of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Based Therapies
Next Article in Special Issue
Regulation of Chemokine–Receptor Interactions and Functions
Previous Article in Journal
Hydrogen Peroxide Response in Leaves of Poplar (Populus simonii × Populus nigra) Revealed from Physiological and Proteomic Analyses
Previous Article in Special Issue
Differences in Sulfotyrosine Binding amongst CXCR1 and CXCR2 Chemokine Ligands
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2088;

Chemokines from a Structural Perspective

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology & Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Chemokine-Receptor Interactions and Functions)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1591 KB, uploaded 9 October 2017]   |  


Chemokines are a family of small, highly conserved cytokines that mediate various biological processes, including chemotaxis, hematopoiesis, and angiogenesis, and that function by interacting with cell surface G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). Because of their significant involvement in various biological functions and pathologies, chemokines and their receptors have been the focus of therapeutic discovery for clinical intervention. There are several sub-families of chemokines (e.g., CXC, CC, C, and CX3C) defined by the positions of sequentially conserved cysteine residues. Even though all chemokines also have a highly conserved, three-stranded β-sheet/α-helix tertiary structural fold, their quarternary structures vary significantly with their sub-family. Moreover, their conserved tertiary structures allow for subunit swapping within and between sub-family members, thus promoting the concept of a “chemokine interactome”. This review is focused on structural aspects of CXC and CC chemokines, their functional synergy and ability to form heterodimers within the chemokine interactome, and some recent developments in structure-based chemokine-targeted drug discovery. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemokine; structure; NMR; heterodimers; interactome chemokine; structure; NMR; heterodimers; interactome

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Miller, M.C.; Mayo, K.H. Chemokines from a Structural Perspective. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2088.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top