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Cancer’s Achilles’ Heel: Apoptosis and Necroptosis to the Rescue
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 74;

Cancer Therapy Due to Apoptosis: Galectin-9

Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Ikenobe 1750-1, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793, Japan
Life Science Research Center, Kagawa University, Ikenobe 1750-1, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793, Japan
Department of Medical Technology, Kagawa Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Hara 281-1, Mure, Takamatsu, Kagawa 761-0123, Japan
Department of Immunology and Immunopathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Ikenobe 1750-1, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anthony Lemarié
Received: 22 September 2016 / Revised: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 27 December 2016 / Published: 1 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
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Dysregulation of apoptosis is a major hallmark in cancer biology that might equip tumors with a higher malignant potential and chemoresistance. The anti-cancer activities of lectin, defined as a carbohydrate-binding protein that is not an enzyme or antibody, have been investigated for over a century. Recently, galectin-9, which has two distinct carbohydrate recognition domains connected by a linker peptide, was noted to induce apoptosis in thymocytes and immune cells. The apoptosis of these cells contributes to the development and regulation of acquired immunity. Furthermore, human recombinant galectin-9, hG9NC (null), which lacks an entire region of the linker peptide, was designed to resist proteolysis. The hG9NC (null) has demonstrated anti-cancer activities, including inducing apoptosis in hematological, dermatological and gastrointestinal malignancies. In this review, the molecular characteristics, history and apoptosis-inducing potential of galectin-9 are described. View Full-Text
Keywords: galectin-9; glycan; apoptosis; pyroptosis; caspase-1; cancer; therapy galectin-9; glycan; apoptosis; pyroptosis; caspase-1; cancer; therapy

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Fujita, K.; Iwama, H.; Oura, K.; Tadokoro, T.; Samukawa, E.; Sakamoto, T.; Nomura, T.; Tani, J.; Yoneyama, H.; Morishita, A.; Himoto, T.; Hirashima, M.; Masaki, T. Cancer Therapy Due to Apoptosis: Galectin-9. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 74.

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