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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 138;

Zinc as a Signal to Stimulate Red Blood Cell Formation in Fish

Center of Translational Medicine, Department of Basic Medicine, Xiamen Medical College, Xiamen 361023, China
Department of Food Science, College of Life Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Toshiyuki Fukada and Taiho Kambe
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zinc Signaling in Physiology and Pathogenesis)
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The common carp can tolerate extremely low oxygen levels. These fish store zinc in a specific zinc-binding protein presented in digestive tract tissues, and under low oxygen, the stored zinc is released and used as a signal to stimulate erythropoiesis (red blood cell formation). To determine whether the environmental supply of zinc to other fish species can serve as a signal to induce erythropoiesis as in the common carp, head kidney cells of four different fish species were cultured with supplemental ZnCl2. Zinc stimulated approximately a three-fold increase in immature red blood cells (RBCs) in one day. The stimulation of erythropoiesis by zinc was dose-dependent. ZnSO4 solution was injected into an experimental blood loss tilapia model. Blood analysis and microscopic observation of the blood cells indicated that, in vivo, the presence of additional zinc induced erythropoiesis in the bled tilapia. In the fish species studied, zinc could be used as a signal to stimulate erythropoiesis both in vitro and in vivo. The present report suggests a possible approach for the induction of red blood cell formation in animals through the supply of a certain level of zinc through either diet or injection. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc; erythropoiesis; red blood cells; fish; erythropoietin zinc; erythropoiesis; red blood cells; fish; erythropoietin

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Chen, Y.-H.; Shiu, J.-R.; Ho, C.-L.; Jeng, S.-S. Zinc as a Signal to Stimulate Red Blood Cell Formation in Fish. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 138.

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