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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1134;

Modifications in Glass Ionomer Cements: Nano-Sized Fillers and Bioactive Nanoceramics

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, Al-Farabi Colleges, P.O Box 361724, Riyadh 11313, Saudi Arabia
Department of Dental Biomaterials, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, P.O. Box 400, Al-Hofuf 31982, Saudi Arabia
Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Madina Munawwarrah 41311, Saudi Arabia
Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Defence Road, off Raiwind Road, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Faisal University, Al-Hofuf 31982, Saudia Arabia
Preventive and Minimally Invasive Dentistry (Spanish Course), Departamento de Odontología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad CEU-Cardenal Herrera, Valencia 46115, Spain
Dental Biomaterials, Preventive and Minimally Invasive Dentistry (Bilingual course), Departamento de Odontología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad CEU-Cardenal Herrera, Valencia 46115, Spain
The University of Hong Kong, Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Materials Science, Hong Kong, China
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Kroto Research Institute, The University of Sheffield, North Campus, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mohamed N. Rahaman
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 27 June 2016 / Accepted: 9 July 2016 / Published: 14 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials)
Full-Text   |   PDF [974 KB, uploaded 14 July 2016]   |  


Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are being used for a wide range of applications in dentistry. In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of glass ionomers, several modifications have been introduced to the conventional GICs. Nanotechnology involves the use of systems, modifications or materials the size of which is in the range of 1–100 nm. Nano-modification of conventional GICs and resin modified GICs (RMGICs) can be achieved by incorporation of nano-sized fillers to RMGICs, reducing the size of the glass particles, and introducing nano-sized bioceramics to the glass powder. Studies suggest that the commercially available nano-filled RMGIC does not hold any significant advantage over conventional RMGICs as far as the mechanical and bonding properties are concerned. Conversely, incorporation of nano-sized apatite crystals not only increases the mechanical properties of conventional GICs, but also can enhance fluoride release and bioactivity. By increasing the crystallinity of the set matrix, apatites can make the set cement chemically more stable, insoluble, and improve the bond strength with tooth structure. Increased fluoride release can also reduce and arrest secondary caries. However, due to a lack of long-term clinical studies, the use of nano-modified glass ionomers is still limited in daily clinical dentistry. In addition to the in vitro and in vivo studies, more randomized clinical trials are required to justify the use of these promising materials. The aim of this paper is to review the modification performed in GIC-based materials to improve their physicochemical properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: glass ionomer cement; restorative dentistry; nanotechnology; adhesive dentistry glass ionomer cement; restorative dentistry; nanotechnology; adhesive dentistry

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Najeeb, S.; Khurshid, Z.; Zafar, M.S.; Khan, A.S.; Zohaib, S.; Martí, J.M.N.; Sauro, S.; Matinlinna, J.P.; Rehman, I.U. Modifications in Glass Ionomer Cements: Nano-Sized Fillers and Bioactive Nanoceramics. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1134.

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