Active and Repressive Chromatin-Associated Proteome after MPA Treatment and the Role of Midkine in Epithelial Monolayer Permeability
AbstractMycophenolic acid (MPA) is prescribed to maintain allografts in organ-transplanted patients. However, gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly diarrhea, are frequently observed as a side effect following MPA therapy. We recently reported that MPA altered the tight junction (TJ)-mediated barrier function in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model system. This study investigates whether MPA induces epigenetic changes which lead to GI complications, especially diarrhea. Methods: We employed a Chromatin Immunoprecipitation-O-Proteomics (ChIP-O-Proteomics) approach to identify proteins associated with active (H3K4me3) as well as repressive (H3K27me3) chromatin histone modifications in MPA-treated cells, and further characterized the role of midkine, a H3K4me3-associated protein, in the context of epithelial monolayer permeability. Results: We identified a total of 333 and 306 proteins associated with active and repressive histone modification marks, respectively. Among them, 241 proteins were common both in active and repressive chromatin, 92 proteins were associated exclusively with the active histone modification mark, while 65 proteins remained specific to repressive chromatin. Our results show that 45 proteins which bind to the active and seven proteins which bind to the repressive chromatin region exhibited significantly altered abundance in MPA-treated cells as compared to DMSO control cells. A number of novel proteins whose function is not known in bowel barrier regulation were among the identified proteins, including midkine. Our functional integrity assays on the Caco-2 cell monolayer showed that the inhibition of midkine expression prior to MPA treatment could completely block the MPA-mediated increase in barrier permeability. Conclusions: The ChIP-O-Proteomics approach delivered a number of novel proteins with potential implications in MPA toxicity. Consequently, it can be proposed that midkine inhibition could be a potent therapeutic approach to prevent the MPA-mediated increase in TJ permeability and leak flux diarrhea in organ transplant patients. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
Supplementary (ZIP, 2121 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
Khan, N.; Lenz, C.; Binder, L.; Pantakani, D.V.K.; Asif, A.R. Active and Repressive Chromatin-Associated Proteome after MPA Treatment and the Role of Midkine in Epithelial Monolayer Permeability. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 597.
Khan N, Lenz C, Binder L, Pantakani DVK, Asif AR. Active and Repressive Chromatin-Associated Proteome after MPA Treatment and the Role of Midkine in Epithelial Monolayer Permeability. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(4):597.Chicago/Turabian Style
Khan, Niamat; Lenz, Christof; Binder, Lutz; Pantakani, Dasaradha V.K.; Asif, Abdul R. 2016. "Active and Repressive Chromatin-Associated Proteome after MPA Treatment and the Role of Midkine in Epithelial Monolayer Permeability." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, no. 4: 597.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.