Next Article in Journal
The Impact of Specific Viruses on Clinical Outcome in Children Presenting with Acute Heart Failure
Next Article in Special Issue
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Metabolic Syndrome after Liver Transplant
Previous Article in Journal
Do Variants in GSTs Modify the Association between Traffic Air Pollution and Asthma in Adolescence?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Different Serum Free Fatty Acid Profiles in NAFLD Subjects and Healthy Controls after Oral Fat Load
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Diet, Microbiota, Obesity, and NAFLD: A Dangerous Quartet

Departamento de Gastrenterologia, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte (CHLN), 1649-035 Lisbon, Portugal
Laboratório de Nutrição, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Universidade de Lisboa, Alameda da Universidade, 1649-004 Lisboa, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Amedeo Lonardo and Giovanni Targher
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 481;
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Research 2016)
PDF [544 KB, uploaded 1 April 2016]


Recently, the importance of the gut-liver-adipose tissue axis has become evident. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic disease of a systemic metabolic disorder that radiates from energy-surplus induced adiposopathy. The gut microbiota has tremendous influences in our whole-body metabolism, and is crucial for our well-being and health. Microorganisms precede humans in more than 400 million years and our guest flora evolved with us in order to help us face aggressor microorganisms, to help us maximize the energy that can be extracted from nutrients, and to produce essential nutrients/vitamins that we are not equipped to produce. However, our gut microbiota can be disturbed, dysbiota, and become itself a source of stress and injury. Dysbiota may adversely impact metabolism and immune responses favoring obesity and obesity-related disorders such as insulin resistance/diabetes mellitus and NAFLD. In this review, we will summarize the latest evidence of the role of microbiota/dysbiota in diet-induced obesity and NAFLD, as well as the potential therapeutic role of targeting the microbiota in this set. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; microbiota; diet; obesity; dysbiota; probiotics nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; microbiota; diet; obesity; dysbiota; probiotics

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Machado, M.V.; Cortez-Pinto, H. Diet, Microbiota, Obesity, and NAFLD: A Dangerous Quartet. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 481.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top