Next Article in Journal
Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities
Next Article in Special Issue
Protective Effect of Tyrosol and S-Adenosylmethionine against Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress of Hepg2 Cells Involves Sirtuin 1, P53 and Erk1/2 Signaling
Previous Article in Journal
Anti-Apoptotic and Pro-Survival Effect of Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF) in a d-Galactose-Induced Aging Heart
Previous Article in Special Issue
Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 472;

Multiplex Immunoassay of Plasma Cytokine Levels in Men with Alcoholism and the Relationship to Psychiatric Assessments

Departments of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences and Pediatrics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 64101, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ashok K. Singh
Received: 10 February 2016 / Revised: 22 March 2016 / Accepted: 24 March 2016 / Published: 29 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholism: Molecular Mechanisms and Treatment Strategies)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1231 KB, uploaded 29 March 2016]   |  


Chronic alcohol use alters adaptive immunity and cytokine activity influencing immunological and hormone responses, inflammation, and wound healing. Brain cytokine disturbances may impact neurological function, mood, cognition and traits related to alcoholism including impulsiveness. We examined the relationship between plasma cytokine levels and self-rated psychiatric symptoms in 40 adult males (mean age 51 ± 6 years; range 33–58 years) with current alcohol dependence and 30 control males (mean age 48 ± 6 years; range 40–58 years) with no history of alcoholism using multiplex sandwich immunoassays with the Luminex magnetic-bead based platform. Log-transformed cytokine levels were analyzed for their relationship with the Symptom Checklist-90R (SCL-90R), Barratt Impulsivity Scales (BIS) and Alcoholism Severity Scale (ASS). Inflammatory cytokines (interferon γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10); monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1); regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)) were significantly elevated in alcoholism compared to controls while bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cytokines and chemokines (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF); soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L); growth-related oncogene (GRO)) were significantly reduced. GRO and RANTES levels were positively correlated with BIS scales; and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) levels were positively correlated with SCL-90R scale scores (p < 0.05). Elevated inflammatory mediators in alcoholism may influence brain function leading to increased impulsiveness and/or phobia. The novel association between RANTES and GRO and impulsivity phenotype in alcoholism should be further investigated in alcoholism and psychiatric conditions with core impulsivity and anxiety phenotypes lending support for therapeutic intervention. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokines; male alcoholism; impulsivity; anxiety; RANTES; GRO; MDC cytokines; male alcoholism; impulsivity; anxiety; RANTES; GRO; MDC

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Manzardo, A.M.; Poje, A.B.; Penick, E.C.; Butler, M.G. Multiplex Immunoassay of Plasma Cytokine Levels in Men with Alcoholism and the Relationship to Psychiatric Assessments. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 472.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top