Next Article in Journal
Epigenetic Modifications in Essential Hypertension
Next Article in Special Issue
Additive Effect of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on Metabolic Syndrome-Related Endothelial Dysfunction in Hypertensive Patients
Previous Article in Journal
The Retentive Strength of Cemented Zirconium Oxide Crowns after Dentin Pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate
Previous Article in Special Issue
Telomeres, NAFLD and Chronic Liver Disease
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 447;

Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE4 6BE, UK
Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research, Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Liver Unit, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne NE7 7DN, UK
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giovanni Targher and Amedeo Lonardo
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 14 March 2016 / Accepted: 15 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Research 2016)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1504 KB, uploaded 25 March 2016]   |  


The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: NAFLD; gut microbiota; lifestyle; diet and exercise NAFLD; gut microbiota; lifestyle; diet and exercise

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Houghton, D.; Stewart, C.J.; Day, C.P.; Trenell, M. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 447.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top