Next Article in Journal
Biological and Chemical Removal of Primary Cilia Affects Mechanical Activation of Chondrogenesis Markers in Chondroprogenitors and Hypertrophic Chondrocytes
Next Article in Special Issue
Chemical Conditioning as an Approach to Ischemic Stroke Tolerance: Mitochondria as the Target
Previous Article in Journal
Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ginsenoside-Rd Promotes Neurite Outgrowth of PC12 Cells through MAPK/ERK- and PI3K/AKT-Dependent Pathways
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 190;

GLP-2 Attenuates LPS-Induced Inflammation in BV-2 Cells by Inhibiting ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katalin Prokai-Tatrai
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 28 January 2016 / Published: 4 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2016)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2964 KB, uploaded 4 February 2016]   |  


The pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) often involves the over-activation of microglia. Over-activated microglia could produce several inflammatory mediators, which trigger excessive inflammation and ultimately cause dopaminergic neuron damage. Anti-inflammatory effects of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in the periphery have been shown. Nonetheless, it has not been illustrated in the brain. Thus, in this study, we aimed to understand the role of GLP-2 in microglia activation and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. BV-2 cells were pretreated with GLP-2 and then stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cells were assessed for the responses of pro-inflammatory enzymes (iNOS and COX-2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α); the related signaling pathways were evaluated by Western blotting. The rescue effect of GLP-2 on microglia-mediated neurotoxicity was also examined. The results showed that GLP-2 significantly reduced LPS-induced production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-s (COX-2), IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Blocking of Gαs by NF449 resulted in a loss of this anti-inflammatory effect in BV-2 cells. Analyses in signaling pathways demonstrated that GLP-2 reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p65, while no effect was observed on p38 phosphorylation. In addition, GLP-2 could suppress microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. All results imply that GLP-2 inhibits LPS-induced microglia activation by collectively regulating ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p65. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucagon-like peptide-2; microglia; Parkinson’s disease; MAPK; NF-κB glucagon-like peptide-2; microglia; Parkinson’s disease; MAPK; NF-κB

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, N.; Liu, B.-W.; Ren, W.-Z.; Liu, J.-X.; Li, S.-N.; Fu, S.-P.; Zeng, Y.-L.; Xu, S.-Y.; Yan, X.; Gao, Y.-J.; Liu, D.-F.; Wang, W. GLP-2 Attenuates LPS-Induced Inflammation in BV-2 Cells by Inhibiting ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 190.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top