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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1649;

Time in Redox Adaptation Processes: From Evolution to Hormesis

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephen C. Bondy
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 30 August 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormesis and Transhormesis in Toxicology and Risk Assessment)
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Life on Earth has to adapt to the ever changing environment. For example, due to introduction of oxygen in the atmosphere, an antioxidant network evolved to cope with the exposure to oxygen. The adaptive mechanisms of the antioxidant network, specifically the glutathione (GSH) system, are reviewed with a special focus on the time. The quickest adaptive response to oxidative stress is direct enzyme modification, increasing the GSH levels or activating the GSH-dependent protective enzymes. After several hours, a hormetic response is seen at the transcriptional level by up-regulating Nrf2-mediated expression of enzymes involved in GSH synthesis. In the long run, adaptations occur at the epigenetic and genomic level; for example, the ability to synthesize GSH by phototrophic bacteria. Apparently, in an adaptive hormetic response not only the dose or the compound, but also time, should be considered. This is essential for targeted interventions aimed to prevent diseases by successfully coping with changes in the environment e.g., oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: hormesis; time; redox adaptation; glutathione; acrolein; flavonoids hormesis; time; redox adaptation; glutathione; acrolein; flavonoids

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Sthijns, M.M.J.P.E.; Weseler, A.R.; Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M. Time in Redox Adaptation Processes: From Evolution to Hormesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1649.

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