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Photodynamic Efficiency: From Molecular Photochemistry to Cell Death
Open AccessArticle

Optimization and Evaluation of a Chitosan/Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Hydrogel Containing Toluidine Blue O for Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation

1
Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
2
Department of Cosmetic Science, Providence University, Taichung City 433, Taiwan
3
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
4
School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Michael R. Hamblin and Ying-ying Huang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 20859-20872; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160920859
Received: 31 July 2015 / Revised: 18 August 2015 / Accepted: 21 August 2015 / Published: 1 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Photodynamic Therapy)
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) combined with chitosan has been shown as a promising antimicrobial approach. The purpose of this study was to develop a chitosan hydrogel containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), chitosan and toluidine blue O (TBO) to improve the bactericidal efficacy for topical application in clinics. The PDI efficacy of hydrogel was examined in vitro against the biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) was performed to investigate the penetration level of TBO into viable S. aureus biofilms. Incorporation of HMPC could increase the physicochemical properties of chitosan hydrogel including the hardness, viscosity as well as bioadhesion; however, higher HMPC concentration also resulted in reduced antimicrobial effect. CSLM analysis further demonstrated that higher HPMC concentration constrained TBO diffusion into the biofilm. The incubation of biofilm and hydrogel was further performed at an angle of 90 degrees. After light irradiation, compared to the mixture of TBO and chitosan, the hydrogel treated sample showed increased PDI efficacy indicated that incorporation of HPMC did improve antimicrobial effect. Finally, the bactericidal efficacy could be significantly augmented by prolonged retention of hydrogel in the biofilm as well as in the animal model of rat skin burn wounds after light irradiation. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; hydrogel; toluidine blue O; photodynamic inactivation chitosan; hydrogel; toluidine blue O; photodynamic inactivation
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Chen, C.-P.; Hsieh, C.-M.; Tsai, T.; Yang, J.-C.; Chen, C.-T. Optimization and Evaluation of a Chitosan/Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Hydrogel Containing Toluidine Blue O for Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 20859-20872.

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