Next Article in Journal
APOE Polymorphisms Contribute to Reduced Atorvastatin Response in Chilean Amerindian Subjects
Previous Article in Journal
Antiproliferative, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of the Lichen Xanthoria parietina and Its Secondary Metabolite Parietin
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7876-7889;

The Changes of Angiogenesis and Immune Cell Infiltration in the Intra- and Peri-Tumoral Melanoma Microenvironment

CGB Laboratory, a.s., Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Pathology, AGEL Research and Training Institute—Ostrava-Vitkovice Branch, Korenskeho 10, Ostrava 71000, Czech Republic
Institute of Clinical and Molecular Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Hnevotinska 3, Olomouc 77515, Czech Republic
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava, Syllabova 19, Ostrava 70300, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bruno Vincenzi
Received: 25 November 2014 / Revised: 17 March 2015 / Accepted: 24 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1900 KB, uploaded 9 April 2015]   |  


Malignant melanoma (MM) urgently needs identification of new markers with better predictive value than currently-used clinical and histological parameters. Cancer cells stimulate the formation of a specialized tumor microenvironment, which reciprocally affects uncontrolled proliferation and migration. However, this microenvironment is heterogeneous with different sub-compartments defined by their access to oxygen and nutrients. This study evaluated microvascular density (MVD), CD3+ lymphocytes (TILs) and FOXP3+ T-regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections using light microscopy. We analyzed 82 malignant melanomas, divided according to the AJCC TNM classification into four groups—pT1 (35), pT2 (17), pT3 (18) and pT4 (12)—and 25 benign pigmented nevi. All parameters were measured in both the central areas of tumors (C) and at their periphery (P). A marked increase in all parameters was found in melanomas compared to nevi (p = 0.0001). There was a positive correlation between MVD, TILs, FOXP3+ Tregs and the vertical growth phase. The results show that MVD, TILs and FOXP3+ Tregs substantially influence cutaneous melanoma microenvironment. We found significant topographic differences of the parameters between central areas of tumors and their boundaries. View Full-Text
Keywords: malignant melanoma; angiogenesis; nestin; microvascular density; CD90/Thy1; FOXP3 malignant melanoma; angiogenesis; nestin; microvascular density; CD90/Thy1; FOXP3

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zidlik, V.; Brychtova, S.; Uvirova, M.; Ziak, D.; Dvorackova, J. The Changes of Angiogenesis and Immune Cell Infiltration in the Intra- and Peri-Tumoral Melanoma Microenvironment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 7876-7889.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top