Next Article in Journal
Rescue Effects: Irradiated Cells Helped by Unirradiated Bystander Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Sinomenine Hydrochloride Protects against Polymicrobial Sepsis via Autophagy
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 2574-2590;

IgG and IgA with Potential Microbial-Binding Activity Are Expressed by Normal Human Skin Epidermal Cells

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
Center for Human Disease Genomics, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100191, China
Hematology Oncology Center, Beijing Children's Hospital, Beijing 100045, China
Andrology Laboratory, University of British Columbia Center for Reproductive Health, Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miroslav Blumenberg
Received: 16 October 2014 / Revised: 25 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 23 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [7307 KB, uploaded 23 January 2015]   |  


The innate immune system of the skin is thought to depend largely on a multi-layered mechanical barrier supplemented by epidermis-derived antimicrobial peptides. To date, there are no reports of antimicrobial antibody secretion by the epidermis. In this study, we report the expression of functional immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA), previously thought to be only produced by B cells, in normal human epidermal cells and the human keratinocyte line HaCaT. While B cells express a fully diverse Ig, epidermal cell-expressed IgG or IgA showed one or two conservative VHDJH rearrangements in each individual. These unique VDJ rearrangements in epidermal cells were found neither in the B cell-derived Ig VDJ databases published by others nor in our positive controls. IgG and IgA from epidermal cells of the same individual had different VDJ rearrangement patterns. IgG was found primarily in prickle cells, and IgA was mainly detected in basal cells. Both epidermal cell-derived IgG and IgA showed potential antibody activity by binding pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, the most common pathogenic skin bacteria, but the microbial-binding profile was different. Our data indicates that normal human epidermal cells spontaneously express IgG and IgA, and we speculate that these Igs participate in skin innate immunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunoglobulin G; immunoglobulin A; human epidermis; VDJ rearrangement; microbial-binding immunoglobulin G; immunoglobulin A; human epidermis; VDJ rearrangement; microbial-binding

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, D.; Ge, J.; Liao, Q.; Ma, J.; Liu, Y.; Huang, J.; Wang, C.; Xu, W.; Zheng, J.; Shao, W.; Lee, G.; Qiu, X. IgG and IgA with Potential Microbial-Binding Activity Are Expressed by Normal Human Skin Epidermal Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 2574-2590.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top