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Open AccessArticle

The Use of the Schizonticidal Agent Quinine Sulfate to Prevent Pond Crashes for Algal-Biofuel Production

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 200 Bobby Dodd Way, Atlanta, GA 30313, USA
School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 201 Cherry-Emerson, Atlanta, GA 30313, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christopher Q. Lan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 27450-27456;
Received: 27 August 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalgal Biotechnology)
PDF [1127 KB, uploaded 17 November 2015]


Algal biofuels are investigated as a promising alternative to petroleum fuel sources to satisfy transportation demand. Despite the high growth rate of algae, predation by rotifers, ciliates, golden algae, and other predators will cause an algae in open ponds to crash. In this study, Chlorella kessleri was used as a model alga and the freshwater rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, as a model predator. The goal of this study was to test the selective toxicity of the chemical, quinine sulfate (QS), on both the alga and the rotifer in order to fully inhibit the rotifer while minimizing its impact on algal growth. The QS LC50 for B. calyciflorus was 17 µM while C. kessleri growth was not inhibited at concentrations <25 µM. In co-culture, complete inhibition of rotifers was observed when the QS concentration was 7.7 µM, while algal growth was not affected. QS applications to produce 1 million gallons of biodiesel in one year are estimated to be $0.04/gallon or ~1% of Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO) projected cost of $5/gge (gallon gasoline equivalent). This provides algae farmers an important tool to manage grazing predators in algae mass cultures and avoid pond crashes. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiesel production; algae pond crash; toxicity; quinine sulfate; rotifer biodiesel production; algae pond crash; toxicity; quinine sulfate; rotifer

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Xu, C.; Wu, K.; Van Ginkel, S.W.; Igou, T.; Lee, H.J.; Bhargava, A.; Johnston, R.; Snell, T.; Chen, Y. The Use of the Schizonticidal Agent Quinine Sulfate to Prevent Pond Crashes for Algal-Biofuel Production. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 27450-27456.

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