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Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Induced by Oxidative Stress

1
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
2
VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
3
Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-Shinbashi, Minatoku, Tokyo 105-0003, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gabor Csanyi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 25234-25263; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161025234
Received: 1 September 2015 / Revised: 30 September 2015 / Accepted: 30 September 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease 2015)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM can lead to multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD), cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF). HF represents one of the most common causes of death in patients with DM and results from DM-induced CAD and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM and results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS overproduction is associated with hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders, such as impaired antioxidant function in conjunction with impaired antioxidant activity. Long-term exposure to oxidative stress in DM induces chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a range of tissues, leading to formation and progression of disease states in these tissues. Indeed, markers for oxidative stress are overexpressed in patients with DM, suggesting that increased ROS may be primarily responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by oxidative stress is crucial to the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced CVD. The current review focuses on the relationship between diabetes-induced CVD and oxidative stress, while highlighting the latest insights into this relationship from findings on diabetic heart and vascular disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes mellitus; oxidative stress; cardiovascular disease; diabetic heart; diabetic vascular disease diabetes mellitus; oxidative stress; cardiovascular disease; diabetic heart; diabetic vascular disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kayama, Y.; Raaz, U.; Jagger, A.; Adam, M.; Schellinger, I.N.; Sakamoto, M.; Suzuki, H.; Toyama, K.; Spin, J.M.; Tsao, P.S. Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Induced by Oxidative Stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 25234-25263.

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