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Open AccessArticle

Hydrostatic Pressure Influences HIF-2 Alpha Expression in Chondrocytes

1
Department of Orthopaedics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
2
Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pamela Lein
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 1043-1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16011043
Received: 22 November 2014 / Accepted: 30 December 2014 / Published: 5 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α is considered to play a major role in the progression of osteoarthritis. Recently, it was reported that pressure amplitude influences HIF-2α expression in murine endothelial cells. We examined whether hydrostatic pressure is involved in expression of HIF-2α in articular chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were cultured and stimulated by inflammation or hydrostatic pressure of 0, 5, 10, or 50 MPa. After stimulation, heat shock protein (HSP) 70, HIF-2α, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression were evaluated. The levels of all gene expression were increased by inflammatory stress. When chondrocytes were exposed to a hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa, HIF-2α, MMP-13, and MMP-3 gene expression increased significantly although those of HSP70 and NF-κB were not significantly different from the control group. In contrast, HIF-2α gene expression did not increase under a hydrostatic pressure of 50 MPa although HSP70 and NF-κB expression increased significantly compared to control. We considered that hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa could regulate HIF-2α independent of NF-κB, because the level of HIF-2α gene expression increased significantly without upregulation of NF-κB expression at 5 MPa. Hydrostatic pressure may influence cartilage degeneration, inducing MMP-13 and MMP-3 expression through HIF-2α. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α; hydrostatic pressure; chondrocytes; hypertrophic differentiation; osteoarthritis; cartilage degeneration; inflammation hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α; hydrostatic pressure; chondrocytes; hypertrophic differentiation; osteoarthritis; cartilage degeneration; inflammation
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Inoue, H.; Arai, Y.; Kishida, T.; Terauchi, R.; Honjo, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Tsuchida, S.; Matsuki, T.; Ueshima, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Mazda, O.; Kubo, T. Hydrostatic Pressure Influences HIF-2 Alpha Expression in Chondrocytes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 1043-1050.

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