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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 1-18;

Formins: Linking Cytoskeleton and Endomembranes in Plant Cells

Department of Experimental Plant Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Charles University, Viničná 5, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic
Institute of Experimental Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rozvojová 263, 165 02 Prague 6, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gian-Pietro Di Sansebastiano
Received: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 17 December 2014 / Published: 23 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control)
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The cytoskeleton plays a central part in spatial organization of the plant cytoplasm, including the endomebrane system. However, the mechanisms involved are so far only partially understood. Formins (FH2 proteins), a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins sharing the FH2 domain whose dimer can nucleate actin, mediate the co-ordination between actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in multiple eukaryotic lineages including plants. Moreover, some plant formins contain transmembrane domains and participate in anchoring cytoskeletal structures to the plasmalemma, and possibly to other membranes. Direct or indirect membrane association is well documented even for some fungal and metazoan formins lacking membrane insertion motifs, and FH2 proteins have been shown to associate with endomembranes and modulate their dynamics in both fungi and metazoans. Here we summarize the available evidence suggesting that formins participate in membrane trafficking and endomembrane, especially ER, organization also in plants. We propose that, despite some methodological pitfalls inherent to in vivo studies based on (over)expression of truncated and/or tagged proteins, formins are beginning to emerge as candidates for the so far somewhat elusive link between the plant cytoskeleton and the endomembrane system. View Full-Text
Keywords: formin; actin; microtubules; endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi; fusion proteins; AtFH4; AtFH5; AtFH16 formin; actin; microtubules; endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi; fusion proteins; AtFH4; AtFH5; AtFH16

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Cvrčková, F.; Oulehlová, D.; Žárský, V. Formins: Linking Cytoskeleton and Endomembranes in Plant Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 1-18.

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