Next Article in Journal
Epigenetic Silencing of DKK3 in Medulloblastoma
Next Article in Special Issue
Endothelial Aging Associated with Oxidative Stress Can Be Modulated by a Healthy Mediterranean Diet
Previous Article in Journal
Synthesis and Characterization of Naphthalenediimide-Functionalized Flavin Derivatives
Previous Article in Special Issue
Differential Expression of Genes Associated with the Progression of Renal Disease in the Kidneys of Liver-Specific Glucokinase Gene Knockout Mice
Article

Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Product (sRAGE)/Pentosidine Ratio: A Potential Risk Factor Determinant for Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy

1
Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 7480-7491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14047480
Received: 20 February 2013 / Revised: 8 March 2013 / Accepted: 21 March 2013 / Published: 3 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Ageing)
This study aims to investigate potential diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk factors by evaluating the circulating levels of pentosidine, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-product (sRAGE), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) as well as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in DR patients. A total of 235 healthy controls, 171 type 2 diabetic without retinopathy (DNR) and 200 diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients were recruited. Plasma was extracted for the estimation of pentosidine, sRAGE, AOPP levels and GPx activity whereas peripheral blood mononuclear cells were disrupted for SOD activity measurement. DNR and DR patients showed significantly higher levels of plasma pentosidine, sRAGE and AOPP but lower GPx and SOD activities when compared to healthy controls. The sRAGE/pentosidine ratio in DR patients was significantly lower than the ratio detected in DNR patients. Proliferative DR patients had significantly higher levels of plasma pentosidine, sRAGE, AOPP and sRAGE/pentosidine ratio than non-proliferative DR patients. High HbA1c level, long duration of diabetes and low sRAGE/pentosidine ratio were determined as the risk factors for DR. This study suggests that sRAGE/pentosidine ratio could serve as a risk factor determinant for type 2 DR as it has a positive correlation with the severity of DR. View Full-Text
Keywords: advanced oxidation protein product; antioxidant enzymes; diabetic retinopathy; oxidative stress; pentosidine; risk factor; soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-product advanced oxidation protein product; antioxidant enzymes; diabetic retinopathy; oxidative stress; pentosidine; risk factor; soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-product
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Ng, Z.X.; Chua, K.H.; Iqbal, T.; Kuppusamy, U.R. Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Product (sRAGE)/Pentosidine Ratio: A Potential Risk Factor Determinant for Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 7480-7491. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14047480

AMA Style

Ng ZX, Chua KH, Iqbal T, Kuppusamy UR. Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Product (sRAGE)/Pentosidine Ratio: A Potential Risk Factor Determinant for Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(4):7480-7491. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14047480

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ng, Zhi X., Kek H. Chua, Tajunisah Iqbal, and Umah R. Kuppusamy 2013. "Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Product (sRAGE)/Pentosidine Ratio: A Potential Risk Factor Determinant for Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 14, no. 4: 7480-7491. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14047480

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop