Next Article in Journal
Biofunctional Constituents from Liriodendron tulipifera with Antioxidants and Anti-Melanogenic Properties
Next Article in Special Issue
Differential mRNA Expression Levels of Human Histone-Modifying Enzymes in Normal Karyotype B Cell Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Previous Article in Journal
Crystal Structure of Dimeric Flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio gigas Suggests a Potential Binding Region for the Electron-Transferring Partner
Previous Article in Special Issue
Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein-Like Protein-2 as a Novel Serological Biomarker for Breast Cancer
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1684-1697;

Expression of Partitioning Defective 3 (Par-3) for Predicting Extrahepatic Metastasis and Survival with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan
Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan 350, Taiwan
Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan
Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 November 2012 / Revised: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 6 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cancer Diagnosis)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1781 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


Partitioning defective 3 (Par-3), a crucial component of partitioning-defective complex proteins, controls cell polarity and contributes to cell migration and cancer cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. However, the clinical relevance of Par-3 in tumor progression and metastasis has not been well elucidated. In this study, we investigated the impact and association of Par-3 expression and clinical outcomes with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We first confirmed that Par-3 was abundantly expressed in HCC cell lines by Western blot analysis. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze the association of Par-3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics in primary and subsequent metastatic tumors of patients with HCC. Par-3 was overexpressed in 47 of 111 (42.3%) primary tumors. Increased expression of Par-3 in primary tumors predicted an increased five-year cumulative incidence of extrahepatic metastasis. In addition, multivariate analysis revealed that Par-3 overexpression was an independent risk factor of extrahepatic metastasis. Increased Par-3 expression in primary tumors was associated with poor five-year overall survival rates and was an independent prognostic factor on Cox regression analysis. In conclusion, we show for the first time that increased Par-3 expression is associated with distant metastasis and poor survival rates in patients with HCC. Par-3 may be a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; metastasis; Par-3; survival hepatocellular carcinoma; metastasis; Par-3; survival
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jan, Y.-J.; Ko, B.-S.; Liu, T.-A.; Wu, Y.-M.; Liang, S.-M.; Chen, S.-C.; Wang, J.; Liou, J.-Y. Expression of Partitioning Defective 3 (Par-3) for Predicting Extrahepatic Metastasis and Survival with Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 1684-1697.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top