Next Article in Journal
Modulation of P1 and EGF Expression by Baicalin
Next Article in Special Issue
HGF–MET Cascade, a Key Target for Inhibiting Cancer Metastasis: The Impact of NK4 Discovery on Cancer Biology and Therapeutics
Previous Article in Journal
The Role of the VEGF-C/VEGFRs Axis in Tumor Progression and Therapy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Novel Molecular Targets for the Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Endocrine Tumors: Answers and Unsolved Problems
Review

Mechanisms of Resistance to Endocrine Therapy in Breast Cancer: Focus on Signaling Pathways, miRNAs and Genetically Based Resistance

1
Department of Reproductive Biology, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan, México 14000, D.F., Mexico
2
Department of Pharmacology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies, Avenida Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, México 07360, D.F., Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 108-145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14010108
Received: 15 October 2012 / Revised: 10 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 20 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Oncology (special issue))
Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy diagnosed in women. Approximately 70% of breast tumors express the estrogen receptor (ER). Tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are the most common and effective therapies for patients with ERα-positive breast cancer. Alone or combined with chemotherapy, tamoxifen significantly reduces disease progression and is associated with more favorable impact on survival in patients. Unfortunately, endocrine resistance occurs, either de novo or acquired during the course of the treatment. The mechanisms that contribute to hormonal resistance include loss or modification in the ERα expression, regulation of signal transduction pathways, altered expression of specific microRNAs, balance of co-regulatory proteins, and genetic polymorphisms involved in tamoxifen metabolic activity. Because of the clinical consequences of endocrine resistance, new treatment strategies are arising to make the cells sensitive to tamoxifen. Here, we will review the current knowledge on mechanisms of endocrine resistance in breast cancer cells. In addition, we will discuss novel therapeutic strategies to overcome such resistance. Undoubtedly, circumventing endocrine resistance should help to improve therapy for the benefit of breast cancer patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: endocrine therapy; breast cancer; estrogen receptor; hormonal resistance endocrine therapy; breast cancer; estrogen receptor; hormonal resistance
Show Figures

MDPI and ACS Style

García-Becerra, R.; Santos, N.; Díaz, L.; Camacho, J. Mechanisms of Resistance to Endocrine Therapy in Breast Cancer: Focus on Signaling Pathways, miRNAs and Genetically Based Resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 108-145. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14010108

AMA Style

García-Becerra R, Santos N, Díaz L, Camacho J. Mechanisms of Resistance to Endocrine Therapy in Breast Cancer: Focus on Signaling Pathways, miRNAs and Genetically Based Resistance. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(1):108-145. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14010108

Chicago/Turabian Style

García-Becerra, Rocío; Santos, Nancy; Díaz, Lorenza; Camacho, Javier. 2013. "Mechanisms of Resistance to Endocrine Therapy in Breast Cancer: Focus on Signaling Pathways, miRNAs and Genetically Based Resistance" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 1: 108-145. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14010108

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop