- freely available
2012, 13(7), 8615-8627; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13078615
2. Definition of Green Extraction
3. The Six Principles of Green Extraction
- Principle 1: Innovation by selection of varieties and use of renewable plant resources.
- Principle 2: Use of alternative solvents and principally water or agro-solvents.
- Principle 3: Reduce energy consumption by energy recovery and using innovative technologies.
- Principle 4: Production of co-products instead of waste to include the bio-and agro-refining industry.
- Principle 5: Reduce unit operations and favour safe, robust and controlled processes.
- Principle 6: Aim for a non denatured and biodegradable extract without contaminants.
3.1. Principle 1: Innovation by the Selection of Varieties and the Use of Renewable Plant Resources
3.2. Principle 2: Use of Alternative Solvents and Principally Water or Agro-Solvents Issued from Agricultural Resources
3.3. Principle 3: Reduce Energy Consumption by Energy Recovery and Using Innovative Technologies
3.4. Principle 4: Production of Co-Products Instead of Waste to Include the Bio and Agro Refining Industry
- Waste is any material that industry has the only choice to eliminate by waste disposal centre, incineration, or landfill.
- By-product is a residual product that appears during the extraction process. It is unintentional and unpredictable. It can be used directly or be an ingredient in another production process to manufacture another finished product. By-products have economic value, for example, oil cakes (rape, sunflower, flax), cereal grain (wheat, barley), beet pulp, potato fibre and proteins, etc.
- Co-product is a material, intentional and inevitable, created during a single manufacturing process and at the same time as the main product. The main final product and co-product must always meet specifications for their characteristics, and each may be used directly for a particular application.
3.5. Principle 5: Reduce Unit Operations through Technical Innovation and Favour Safe, Robust and Controlled Processes
3.6. Principle 6: Aim for a Non Denatured and Biodegradable Extract without Contaminants with “Green” Values
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|Solvent||Extraction Technique (Application)||Solvent Power||Health & Safety||Cost||Environmental Impact|
|Solvent-free||Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity (antioxidants, essential oils)||+++||+||+++||+||+++|
|Pulse Electric Field (antioxidants, pigments)||+++||+||+++||+||+++|
|Water||Steam distillation (essential oils)||++||+||+||++||+|
|Microwave-assisted distillation (essential oils)||+++||+++||+||+||+||++|
|Extraction by sub-critical water (Aromas)||+||++||+||+||+|
|CO2||Supercritical fluid extraction (decaffeination of tea and coffee)||−||+||+++||+||+||+|
|Ionic liquids||Ammonium salts (Artemisinin)||−||+||+++||−||−||++|
|Agrosolvents||Ethanol (pigments and antioxidants)||+||+||−||−||++||+|
|Terpenes such as d-limonene (fats and oils)||−||−||++||−||+||+|
|Petrochemical solvents||n-Hexane (fats and oils)||−||+||+++||−−−||++||−−−|
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