Next Article in Journal
Chelation of Cu(II), Zn(II), and Fe(II) by Tannin Constituents of Selected Edible Nuts
Previous Article in Journal
Sharp Phylogeographic Breaks and Patterns of Genealogical Concordance in the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana

Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds

The Allergy/Immunology Department at Ear, Nose and Throat Associates of North Central Wisconsin, 2801 Westhill Dr. Wausau, WI 54401, USA
Department of Pediatrics and Medicine, Allergy and Immunology Division, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Dr. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4th Street Mail stop 6591, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA
Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Research Services 151-1, VA Medical Center, 5000 W. National Ave, Milwaukee, WI 53295, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(12), 5471-5484;
Received: 7 November 2009 / Revised: 11 December 2009 / Accepted: 16 December 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: immune response; molds; mycotoxins; clinical symptoms immune response; molds; mycotoxins; clinical symptoms
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Edmondson, D.A.; Barrios, C.S.; Brasel, T.L.; Straus, D.C.; Kurup, V.P.; Fink, J.N. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 5471-5484.

AMA Style

Edmondson DA, Barrios CS, Brasel TL, Straus DC, Kurup VP, Fink JN. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(12):5471-5484.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Edmondson, David A., Christy S. Barrios, Trevor L. Brasel, David C. Straus, Viswanath P. Kurup, and Jordan N. Fink 2009. "Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 10, no. 12: 5471-5484.

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop