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Article

Interactions of Linearly Polarized and Unpolarized Light on Kiwifruit Using Aquaphotomics

1
Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
2
The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Ruakura 3216, New Zealand
3
The Dodd Walls Centre for Photonic and Quantum Technologies, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Roumiana Tsenkova and Jelena Muncan
Molecules 2022, 27(2), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27020494
Received: 15 December 2021 / Revised: 10 January 2022 / Accepted: 10 January 2022 / Published: 13 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaphotomics - Exploring Water Molecular Systems in Nature)
Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an important tool for predicting the internal qualities of fruits. Using aquaphotomics, spectral changes between linearly polarized and unpolarized light were assessed on 200 commercially grown yellow-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis ‘Zesy002’). Measurements were performed on different configurations of unpeeled (intact) and peeled (cut) kiwifruit using a commercial handheld NIR instrument. Absorbance after applying standard normal variate (SNV) and second derivative Savitzky–Golay filters produced different spectral features for all configurations. An aquagram depicting all configurations suggests that linearly polarized light activated more free water states and unpolarized light activated more bound water states. At depth (≥1 mm), after several scattering events, all radiation is expected to be fully depolarized and interactions for incident polarized or unpolarized light will be similar, so any observed differences are attributable to the surface layers of the fruit. Aquagrams generated in terms of the fruit soluble solids content (SSC) were similar for all configurations, suggesting the SSC in fruit is not a contributing factor here. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquaphotomics; water; spectra; band assignment; functionality; polarization; kiwifruit; near infrared spectroscopy aquaphotomics; water; spectra; band assignment; functionality; polarization; kiwifruit; near infrared spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rajkumar, D.; Künnemeyer, R.; Kaur, H.; Longdell, J.; McGlone, A. Interactions of Linearly Polarized and Unpolarized Light on Kiwifruit Using Aquaphotomics. Molecules 2022, 27, 494. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27020494

AMA Style

Rajkumar D, Künnemeyer R, Kaur H, Longdell J, McGlone A. Interactions of Linearly Polarized and Unpolarized Light on Kiwifruit Using Aquaphotomics. Molecules. 2022; 27(2):494. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27020494

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rajkumar, Damenraj, Rainer Künnemeyer, Harpreet Kaur, Jevon Longdell, and Andrew McGlone. 2022. "Interactions of Linearly Polarized and Unpolarized Light on Kiwifruit Using Aquaphotomics" Molecules 27, no. 2: 494. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27020494

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