The binding of proteins to Z-DNA is hard to analyze, especially for short non-modified DNA, because it is easily transferred to B-DNA. Here, by the hybridization of a larger circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with a smaller one, an LR-chimera (involving a left-handed part and a right-handed one) with an ssDNA loop is produced. The circular ssDNAs are prepared by the hybridization of two ssDNA fragments to form two nicks, followed by nick sealing with T4 DNA ligase. No splint (a scaffold DNA for circularizing ssDNA) is required, and no polymeric byproducts are produced. The ssDNA loop on the LR-chimera can be used to attach it with other molecules by hybridization with another ssDNA. The gel shift binding assay with Z-DNA specific binding antibody (Z22) or Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1) shows that stable Z-DNA can form under physiological ionic conditions even when the extra ssDNA part is present. Concretely, a 5′-terminal biotin-modified DNA oligonucleotide complementary to the ssDNA loop on the LR-chimera is used to attach it on the surface of a biosensor inlaid with streptavidin molecules, and the binding constant of ZBP1 with Z-DNA is analyzed by BLI (bio-layer interferometry). This approach is convenient for quantitatively analyzing the binding dynamics of Z-DNA with other molecules.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.