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Article

Exploratory Study Using Urinary Volatile Organic Compounds for the Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital, Coventry CV2 2DX, UK
2
Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7HL, UK
3
School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
4
Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK
5
Leicester Cancer Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Natalia Drabińska and Ben de Lacy Costello
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2447; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092447
Received: 25 March 2021 / Revised: 17 April 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 22 April 2021
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biomarkers are lacking in clinical practice. We therefore explored the pattern and composition of urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in HCC patients. This was done in order to assess the feasibility of a potential non-invasive test for HCC, and to enhance our understanding of the disease. This pilot study recruited 58 participants, of whom 20 were HCC cases and 38 were non-HCC cases. The non-HCC cases included healthy individuals and patients with various stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including those with and without fibrosis. Urine was analysed using gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry (GC–IMS) and gas chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC–TOF-MS). GC–IMS was able to separate HCC from fibrotic cases with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 (0.91–1.00), and from non-fibrotic cases with an AUC of 0.62 (0.48–0.76). For GC-TOF-MS, a subset of samples was analysed in which seven chemicals were identified and tentatively linked with HCC. These include 4-methyl-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (2TMS derivative), 2-butanone, 2-hexanone, benzene, 1-ethyl-2-methyl-, 3-butene-1,2-diol, 1-(2-furanyl)-, bicyclo(4.1.0)heptane, 3,7,7-trimethyl-, [1S-(1a,3β,6a)]-, and sulpiride. Urinary VOC analysis using both GC–IMS and GC-TOF-MS proved to be a feasible method of identifying HCC cases, and was also able to enhance our understanding of HCC pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: urinary biomarkers; hepatocellular carcinoma; diagnosis; volatile organic compounds; headspace analysis urinary biomarkers; hepatocellular carcinoma; diagnosis; volatile organic compounds; headspace analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bannaga, A.S.; Tyagi, H.; Daulton, E.; Covington, J.A.; Arasaradnam, R.P. Exploratory Study Using Urinary Volatile Organic Compounds for the Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Molecules 2021, 26, 2447. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092447

AMA Style

Bannaga AS, Tyagi H, Daulton E, Covington JA, Arasaradnam RP. Exploratory Study Using Urinary Volatile Organic Compounds for the Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Molecules. 2021; 26(9):2447. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092447

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bannaga, Ayman S.; Tyagi, Heena; Daulton, Emma; Covington, James A.; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P. 2021. "Exploratory Study Using Urinary Volatile Organic Compounds for the Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma" Molecules 26, no. 9: 2447. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092447

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