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Review

Lignins Isolated via Catalyst-Free Organosolv Pulping from Miscanthus x giganteus, M. sinensis, M. robustus and M. nagara: A Comparative Study

1
Department of Natural Sciences, Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, von-Liebig-Strasse 20, D-53359 Rheinbach, Germany
2
Spectral Service AG, Emil-Hoffmann-Strasse 33, D-50996 Köln, Germany
3
Institute of Chemistry, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya Street 83, 410012 Saratov, Russia
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Department of Natural Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Aachen, Chemistry and Biotechnology, Heinrich-Mußmann-Strasse 1, 52428 Jülich, Germany
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Department of Chemistry, MS 015, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02453, USA
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Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bonn, Klein-Altendorf 2, D-53359 Rheinbach, Germany
7
Field Lab Campus Klein-Altendorf, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bonn, Campus Klein-Altendorf 1, D-53359 Rheinbach, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Teofil Jesionowski
Molecules 2021, 26(4), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040842
Received: 27 November 2020 / Revised: 21 January 2021 / Accepted: 2 February 2021 / Published: 5 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignin – A Natural Resource with Huge Potential)
As a low-input crop, Miscanthus offers numerous advantages that, in addition to agricultural applications, permits its exploitation for energy, fuel, and material production. Depending on the Miscanthus genotype, season, and harvest time as well as plant component (leaf versus stem), correlations between structure and properties of the corresponding isolated lignins differ. Here, a comparative study is presented between lignins isolated from M. x giganteus, M. sinensis, M. robustus and M. nagara using a catalyst-free organosolv pulping process. The lignins from different plant constituents are also compared regarding their similarities and differences regarding monolignol ratio and important linkages. Results showed that the plant genotype has the weakest influence on monolignol content and interunit linkages. In contrast, structural differences are more significant among lignins of different harvest time and/or season. Analyses were performed using fast and simple methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Data was assigned to four different linkages (A: β-O-4 linkage, B: phenylcoumaran, C: resinol, D: β-unsaturated ester). In conclusion, A content is particularly high in leaf-derived lignins at just under 70% and significantly lower in stem and mixture lignins at around 60% and almost 65%. The second most common linkage pattern is D in all isolated lignins, the proportion of which is also strongly dependent on the crop portion. Both stem and mixture lignins, have a relatively high share of approximately 20% or more (maximum is M. sinensis Sin2 with over 30%). In the leaf-derived lignins, the proportions are significantly lower on average. Stem samples should be chosen if the highest possible lignin content is desired, specifically from the M. x giganteus genotype, which revealed lignin contents up to 27%. Due to the better frost resistance and higher stem stability, M. nagara offers some advantages compared to M. x giganteus. Miscanthus crops are shown to be very attractive lignocellulose feedstock (LCF) for second generation biorefineries and lignin generation in Europe. View Full-Text
Keywords: Miscanthus x giganteus; Miscanthus sinensis; Miscanthus robustus; Miscanthus nagara; lignin; monolignol ratio; low-input crops Miscanthus x giganteus; Miscanthus sinensis; Miscanthus robustus; Miscanthus nagara; lignin; monolignol ratio; low-input crops
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bergs, M.; Monakhova, Y.; Diehl, B.W.; Konow, C.; Völkering, G.; Pude, R.; Schulze, M. Lignins Isolated via Catalyst-Free Organosolv Pulping from Miscanthus x giganteus, M. sinensis, M. robustus and M. nagara: A Comparative Study. Molecules 2021, 26, 842. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040842

AMA Style

Bergs M, Monakhova Y, Diehl BW, Konow C, Völkering G, Pude R, Schulze M. Lignins Isolated via Catalyst-Free Organosolv Pulping from Miscanthus x giganteus, M. sinensis, M. robustus and M. nagara: A Comparative Study. Molecules. 2021; 26(4):842. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040842

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bergs, Michel, Yulia Monakhova, Bernd W. Diehl, Christopher Konow, Georg Völkering, Ralf Pude, and Margit Schulze. 2021. "Lignins Isolated via Catalyst-Free Organosolv Pulping from Miscanthus x giganteus, M. sinensis, M. robustus and M. nagara: A Comparative Study" Molecules 26, no. 4: 842. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040842

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