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Article

In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation of Sugar Adulterated Heterotrigona itama Honey Using Zebrafish Model

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Food Safety and Food Integrity (FOSFI), Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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Natural Medicines and Products Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology & Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 55469-14177, Iran
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Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juraj Majtan
Molecules 2021, 26(20), 6222; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206222
Received: 5 July 2021 / Revised: 5 August 2021 / Accepted: 6 August 2021 / Published: 15 October 2021
Honey is prone to be adulterated through mixing with sugars, cheap and low-quality honey, and other adulterants. Consumption of adulterated honey may cause several health issues such as weight gain, diabetes, and liver and kidney dysfunction. Therefore, studying the impact of consumption of adulterated honey on consumers is critical since there is a lack of study in this field. Hence, the aims of this paper were: (1) to determine the lethal concentration (LC50) of adulterated honey using zebrafish embryo, (2) to elucidate toxicology of selected adulterated honey based on lethal dose (LD50) using adult zebrafish, (3) to determine the effects of adulterated honey on histological changes of zebrafish, and (4) to screen the metabolites profile of adulterated honey by using zebrafish blood serum. The LC50 of Heterotrigona itama honey (acacia honey) and its sugar adulterants (light corn sugar, cane sugar, inverted sugar, and palm sugar in the proportion of 1–3% (w/w) from the total volume) was determined by the toxicological assessment of honey samples on zebrafish embryos (different exposure concentrations in 24, 48, 72, and 96 h postfertilization (hpf)). Pure H. itama honey represents the LC50 of 34.40 ± 1.84 (mg/mL) at 96 hpf, while the inverted sugar represents the lowest LC50 (5.03 ± 0.92 mg/mL) among sugar adulterants. The highest concentration (3%) of sugar adulterants were used to study the toxicology of adulterated honey using adult zebrafish in terms of acute, prolong-acute, and sub-acute tests. The results of the LD50 from the sub-acute toxicity test of pure H. itama honey was 2.33 ± 0.24 (mg/mL). The histological studies of internal organs showed a lesion in the liver, kidney, and spleen of adulterated treated-honey groups compared to the control group. Furthermore, the LC-MS/MS results revealed three endogenous metabolites in both the pure and adulterated honey treated groups, as follows: (1) S-Cysteinosuccinic acid, (2) 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid, and (3) Cysteinyl-Tyrosine. The results of this study demonstrated that adulterated honey caused mortality, which contributes to higher toxicity, and also suggested that the zebrafish toxicity test could be a standard method for assessing the potential toxicity of other hazardous food additives. The information gained from this research will permit an evaluation of the potential risk associated with the consumption of adulterated compared to pure honey. View Full-Text
Keywords: Heterotigona itama honey; honey quality; adulteration; Danio rerio; toxicity assessment Heterotigona itama honey; honey quality; adulteration; Danio rerio; toxicity assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fakhlaei, R.; Selamat, J.; Razis, A.F.A.; Sukor, R.; Ahmad, S.; Amani Babadi, A.; Khatib, A. In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation of Sugar Adulterated Heterotrigona itama Honey Using Zebrafish Model. Molecules 2021, 26, 6222. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206222

AMA Style

Fakhlaei R, Selamat J, Razis AFA, Sukor R, Ahmad S, Amani Babadi A, Khatib A. In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation of Sugar Adulterated Heterotrigona itama Honey Using Zebrafish Model. Molecules. 2021; 26(20):6222. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206222

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fakhlaei, Rafieh, Jinap Selamat, Ahmad F.A. Razis, Rashidah Sukor, Syahida Ahmad, Arman Amani Babadi, and Alfi Khatib. 2021. "In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation of Sugar Adulterated Heterotrigona itama Honey Using Zebrafish Model" Molecules 26, no. 20: 6222. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206222

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