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Article

Smoked-Derived Volatile Phenol Analysis in Wine by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

1
Department of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
2
College of Food Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kerry Wilkinson and Elisabetta Torregiani
Molecules 2021, 26(18), 5613; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185613
Received: 5 August 2021 / Revised: 10 September 2021 / Accepted: 13 September 2021 / Published: 16 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoke Taint in Grapes and Wine)
Smoke-derived taint has become a significant concern for the U.S. wine industry, particularly on the west coast, and climate change is anticipated to aggravate it. High volatile phenols such as guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, 4-ethylphenol, and o-, p-, m-cresols have been suggested to be related to smoke-exposed grape and wine. This paper describes an analytical approach based on ethylene glycol/polydimethylsiloxane (EG/PDMS)-stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS) to quantify or estimate the concentrations of some smoke-related volatile phenols in wines. Correlation coefficients with R2 ≥ 0.990 were obtained. This method can quantify most smoked-related volatile phenols down to 0.5 μg/L in wine in selective ion monitoring mode. Recovery for the targeted volatile phenols ranged from 72.2% to 142.4% in the smoke-tainted wine matrix, except for 4-vinylguaiacol. The standard deviations of the volatile phenols were from 0 to 23% in smoke-tainted wine. The approach provides another tool to evaluate wine smoke exposure and potential smoke taint. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoke-exposed wine; volatile phenols; SBSE-GC-MS; EG-PDMS smoke-exposed wine; volatile phenols; SBSE-GC-MS; EG-PDMS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, R.; Alcazar-Magana, A.; Qian, Y.L.; Qian, M.C. Smoked-Derived Volatile Phenol Analysis in Wine by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Molecules 2021, 26, 5613. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185613

AMA Style

Yang R, Alcazar-Magana A, Qian YL, Qian MC. Smoked-Derived Volatile Phenol Analysis in Wine by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Molecules. 2021; 26(18):5613. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185613

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Ruiwen, Armando Alcazar-Magana, Yanping L. Qian, and Michael C. Qian 2021. "Smoked-Derived Volatile Phenol Analysis in Wine by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry" Molecules 26, no. 18: 5613. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185613

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