Next Article in Journal
Long-Term Antibacterial Film Nanocomposite Incorporated with Patchouli Essential Oil Prepared by Supercritical CO2 Cyclic Impregnation for Wound Dressing
Next Article in Special Issue
Inactivation Activities of Ozonated Water, Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and Ethanol against SARS-CoV-2
Previous Article in Journal
Fabrication and Evaluation of Alginate/Bacterial Cellulose Nanocrystals–Chitosan–Gelatin Composite Scaffolds
Previous Article in Special Issue
Pharmacophore-Based Virtual Screening, Quantum Mechanics Calculations, and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Approaches Identified Potential Natural Antiviral Drug Candidates against MERS-CoV S1-NTD
Review

An Update on COVID-19 Vaccine Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Syndrome and Some Management Recommendations

1
Department of Haematology, Mid & South Essex University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Prittlewell Chase, Westcliff-on-Sea SS0 0RY, UK
2
Department of Haematology, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 3NS, UK
3
National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance(NCIRS) Kids Research, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
4
The Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2145, Australia
5
Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Colombia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
6
Adult Haemato-Oncology Unit, Faculty of Medicne, Ainshams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Caterina Vicidomini and Giovanni N. Roviello
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5004; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165004
Received: 1 June 2021 / Revised: 8 August 2021 / Accepted: 13 August 2021 / Published: 18 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Molecular Strategies)
The thrombotic thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), a complication of COVID-19 vaccines, involves thrombosis (often cerebral venous sinus thrombosis) and thrombocytopenia with occasional pulmonary embolism and arterial ischemia. TTS appears to mostly affect females aged between 20 and 50 years old, with no predisposing risk factors conclusively identified so far. Cases are characterized by thrombocytopenia, higher levels of D-dimers than commonly observed in venous thromboembolic events, inexplicably low fibrinogen levels and worsening thrombosis. Hyper fibrinolysis associated with bleeding can also occur. Antibodies that bind platelet factor 4, similar to those associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, have also been identified but in the absence of patient exposure to heparin treatment. A number of countries have now suspended the use of adenovirus-vectored vaccines for younger individuals. The prevailing opinion of most experts is that the risk of developing COVID-19 disease, including thrombosis, far exceeds the extremely low risk of TTS associated with highly efficacious vaccines. Mass vaccination should continue but with caution. Vaccines that are more likely to cause TTS (e.g., Vaxzevria manufactured by AstraZeneca) should be avoided in younger patients for whom an alternative vaccine is available. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccine; disseminated intravascular coagulation; heparin induced thrombocytopenia; platelet factor 4; thrombosis; thrombotic thrombo-cytopenic purpura; vaccine induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccine; disseminated intravascular coagulation; heparin induced thrombocytopenia; platelet factor 4; thrombosis; thrombotic thrombo-cytopenic purpura; vaccine induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Islam, A.; Bashir, M.S.; Joyce, K.; Rashid, H.; Laher, I.; Elshazly, S. An Update on COVID-19 Vaccine Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Syndrome and Some Management Recommendations. Molecules 2021, 26, 5004. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165004

AMA Style

Islam A, Bashir MS, Joyce K, Rashid H, Laher I, Elshazly S. An Update on COVID-19 Vaccine Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Syndrome and Some Management Recommendations. Molecules. 2021; 26(16):5004. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Islam, Amin, Mohammed S. Bashir, Kevin Joyce, Harunor Rashid, Ismail Laher, and Shereen Elshazly. 2021. "An Update on COVID-19 Vaccine Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Syndrome and Some Management Recommendations" Molecules 26, no. 16: 5004. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165004

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop