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Review

Bee Venom: From Venom to Drug

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Entomology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62521, Egypt
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Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
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Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62521, Egypt
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Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62521, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nada Orsolic and Maja Jazvinšćak Jembrek
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 4941; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164941
Received: 17 June 2021 / Revised: 10 August 2021 / Accepted: 11 August 2021 / Published: 15 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bee Products: Recent Progress in Health Benefits Studies)
Insects of the order Hymenoptera have a defensive substance that contains many biologically active compounds. Specifically, venom from honeybees (Apis mellifera) contains many enzymes and peptides that are effective against various diseases. Different research papers stated the possibility of using bee venom (a direct bee sting or in an injectable form) in treating several complications; either in vivo or in vitro. Other reports used the active fractions of bee venom clinically or at labratory scale. Many reports and publications have stated that bee venom and its constituents have multiple biological activities including anti-microbial, anti-protozoan, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-arthritic properties. The present review aims to refer to the use of bee venom itself or its fractions in treating several diseases and counteracting drug toxicities as an alternative protocol of therapy. The updated molecular mechanisms of actions of bee venom and its components are discussed in light of the previous updated publications. The review also summarizes the potential of venom loaded on nanoparticles as a drug delivery vehicle and its molecular mechanisms. Finally, the products of bee venom available in markets are also demonstrated. View Full-Text
Keywords: bee venom; inflammatory and chronic diseases; nanoparticles; bee venom products bee venom; inflammatory and chronic diseases; nanoparticles; bee venom products
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khalil, A.; Elesawy, B.H.; Ali, T.M.; Ahmed, O.M. Bee Venom: From Venom to Drug. Molecules 2021, 26, 4941. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164941

AMA Style

Khalil A, Elesawy BH, Ali TM, Ahmed OM. Bee Venom: From Venom to Drug. Molecules. 2021; 26(16):4941. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164941

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khalil, Abdelwahab, Basem H. Elesawy, Tarek M. Ali, and Osama M. Ahmed. 2021. "Bee Venom: From Venom to Drug" Molecules 26, no. 16: 4941. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164941

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