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Review

The Recognition of and Reactions to Nucleic Acid Nanoparticles by Human Immune Cells

1
Faculty of Science, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, 04154 Kosice, Slovakia
2
Nanoscale Science Program, Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA
3
Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, Cancer Research Technology Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ali Nazemi
Molecules 2021, 26(14), 4231; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144231
Received: 1 June 2021 / Revised: 30 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 July 2021 / Published: 12 July 2021
The relatively straightforward methods of designing and assembling various functional nucleic acids into nanoparticles offer advantages for applications in diverse diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. However, due to the novelty of this approach, nucleic acid nanoparticles (NANPs) are not yet used in the clinic. The immune recognition of NANPs is among the areas of preclinical investigation aimed at enabling the translation of these novel materials into clinical settings. NANPs’ interactions with the complement system, coagulation systems, and immune cells are essential components of their preclinical safety portfolio. It has been established that NANPs’ physicochemical properties—composition, shape, and size—determine their interactions with immune cells (primarily blood plasmacytoid dendritic cells and monocytes), enable recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), and mediate the subsequent cytokine response. However, unlike traditional therapeutic nucleic acids (e.g., CpG oligonucleotides), NANPs do not trigger a cytokine response unless they are delivered into the cells using a carrier. Recently, it was discovered that the type of carrier provides an additional tool for regulating both the spectrum and the magnitude of the cytokine response to NANPs. Herein, we review the current knowledge of NANPs’ interactions with various components of the immune system to emphasize the unique properties of these nanomaterials and highlight opportunities for their use in vaccines and immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: nucleic acid nanoparticles (NANPs); immunorecognition; immunoreaction; Toll-like receptors; cytokine storm syndrome; complement activation-related pseudoallergy nucleic acid nanoparticles (NANPs); immunorecognition; immunoreaction; Toll-like receptors; cytokine storm syndrome; complement activation-related pseudoallergy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bila, D.; Radwan, Y.; Dobrovolskaia, M.A.; Panigaj, M.; Afonin, K.A. The Recognition of and Reactions to Nucleic Acid Nanoparticles by Human Immune Cells. Molecules 2021, 26, 4231. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144231

AMA Style

Bila D, Radwan Y, Dobrovolskaia MA, Panigaj M, Afonin KA. The Recognition of and Reactions to Nucleic Acid Nanoparticles by Human Immune Cells. Molecules. 2021; 26(14):4231. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144231

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bila, Dominika, Yasmine Radwan, Marina A. Dobrovolskaia, Martin Panigaj, and Kirill A. Afonin. 2021. "The Recognition of and Reactions to Nucleic Acid Nanoparticles by Human Immune Cells" Molecules 26, no. 14: 4231. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144231

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