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Article

Characterizing the Volatile and Sensory Profiles, and Sugar Content of Beeswax, Beebread, Bee Pollen, and Honey

1
Department of Chemistry and Biodynamics of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 10 Tuwima Street, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Technology and Plant Product Quality Assessment, University of Rzeszów, 4 Zelwerowicza Street, 35-601 Rzeszów, Poland
3
Sensory Laboratory, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 10 Tuwima Street, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
4
Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Food Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 45f Słoneczna Street, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gavino Sanna, Marco Ciulu, Yolanda Picò, Nadia Spano and Carlo I.G. Tuberoso
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3410; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113410
Received: 12 May 2021 / Revised: 31 May 2021 / Accepted: 2 June 2021 / Published: 4 June 2021
Bee products are a well-known remedy against numerous diseases. However, from the consumers’ perspective, it is essential to define factors that can affect their sensory acceptance. This investigation aimed to evaluate the volatile and sensory profiles, and sugar composition of beeswax, beebread, pollen, and honey. According to the HS-SPME/GC-MS results, 20 volatiles were identified in beeswax and honey, then 32 in beebread, and 33 in pollen. Alkanes were found to dominate in beeswax, beebread, and pollen, while aldehydes and monoterpenes in honey. In the case of sugars, a higher content of fructose was determined in beebread, bee pollen, and honey, whereas the highest content of glucose was assayed in beeswax. In the QDA, the highest aroma intensity characterized as honey-like and sweet was found in honey, while the acid aroma was typical of beebread. Other odor descriptors, including waxy, pungent, and plant-based aromas were noted only in beeswax, honey, and pollen, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: aroma composition; bee products; PLS; sugar content; QDA profile aroma composition; bee products; PLS; sugar content; QDA profile
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MDPI and ACS Style

Starowicz, M.; Hanus, P.; Lamparski, G.; Sawicki, T. Characterizing the Volatile and Sensory Profiles, and Sugar Content of Beeswax, Beebread, Bee Pollen, and Honey. Molecules 2021, 26, 3410. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113410

AMA Style

Starowicz M, Hanus P, Lamparski G, Sawicki T. Characterizing the Volatile and Sensory Profiles, and Sugar Content of Beeswax, Beebread, Bee Pollen, and Honey. Molecules. 2021; 26(11):3410. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113410

Chicago/Turabian Style

Starowicz, Małgorzata, Paweł Hanus, Grzegorz Lamparski, and Tomasz Sawicki. 2021. "Characterizing the Volatile and Sensory Profiles, and Sugar Content of Beeswax, Beebread, Bee Pollen, and Honey" Molecules 26, no. 11: 3410. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113410

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