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Review

Bone Grafts and Substitutes in Dentistry: A Review of Current Trends and Developments

1
Department of Oral Science, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, 310 Great King Street, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
2
Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Implantology, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
3
BioMatter Unit—École Polytechnique de Bruxelles, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Avenue F.D. Roosevelt, 50—CP 165/61, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Horia Iovu
Molecules 2021, 26(10), 3007; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26103007
Received: 15 March 2021 / Revised: 29 April 2021 / Accepted: 13 May 2021 / Published: 18 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry of Medical and Dental Biomaterials)
After tooth loss, bone resorption is irreversible, leaving the area without adequate bone volume for successful implant treatment. Bone grafting is the only solution to reverse dental bone loss and is a well-accepted procedure required in one in every four dental implants. Research and development in materials, design and fabrication technologies have expanded over the years to achieve successful and long-lasting dental implants for tooth substitution. This review will critically present the various dental bone graft and substitute materials that have been used to achieve a successful dental implant. The article also reviews the properties of dental bone grafts and various dental bone substitutes that have been studied or are currently available commercially. The various classifications of bone grafts and substitutes, including natural and synthetic materials, are critically presented, and available commercial products in each category are discussed. Different bone substitute materials, including metals, ceramics, polymers, or their combinations, and their chemical, physical, and biocompatibility properties are explored. Limitations of the available materials are presented, and areas which require further research and development are highlighted. Tissue engineering hybrid constructions with enhanced bone regeneration ability, such as cell-based or growth factor-based bone substitutes, are discussed as an emerging area of development. View Full-Text
Keywords: replacing tooth loss; dental implant; bone defects; bone reconstruction; bone graft; bone tissue engineering; natural and synthetic bone substitutes replacing tooth loss; dental implant; bone defects; bone reconstruction; bone graft; bone tissue engineering; natural and synthetic bone substitutes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, R.; Yang, R.; Cooper, P.R.; Khurshid, Z.; Shavandi, A.; Ratnayake, J. Bone Grafts and Substitutes in Dentistry: A Review of Current Trends and Developments. Molecules 2021, 26, 3007. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26103007

AMA Style

Zhao R, Yang R, Cooper PR, Khurshid Z, Shavandi A, Ratnayake J. Bone Grafts and Substitutes in Dentistry: A Review of Current Trends and Developments. Molecules. 2021; 26(10):3007. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26103007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Rusin, Ruijia Yang, Paul R. Cooper, Zohaib Khurshid, Amin Shavandi, and Jithendra Ratnayake. 2021. "Bone Grafts and Substitutes in Dentistry: A Review of Current Trends and Developments" Molecules 26, no. 10: 3007. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26103007

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