Next Article in Journal
Multidisciplinary Studies of Folk Medicine “Five Thieves’ Oil” (Olejek Pięciu Złodziei) Components
Next Article in Special Issue
Olive Oil with Ozone-Modified Properties and Its Application
Previous Article in Journal
Force Field Parameters for Fe2+4S2−4 Clusters of Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase, the 5-Fluorouracil Cancer Drug Deactivation Protein: A Step towards In Silico Pharmacogenomics Studies
Previous Article in Special Issue
Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Properties of Plant Extract from Dry Flowers as Functional Dyes for Cosmetic Products
Review

Propolis Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds—From Traditional to Modern Extraction Technologies

1
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Director of Research & Development and CTO, Amelia Ltd., Zagorska 28, Bunjani, 10314 Kriz, Croatia
3
Department of Animal Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
4
Hedera Ltd., 4. Gardijske Brigade 35, 21311 Split, Croatia
5
Department for Biology and Pathology of Fish and Bees, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
6
Division of Molecular Medicine, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alessandra Morana and Giuseppe Squillaci
Molecules 2021, 26(10), 2930; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102930
Received: 20 April 2021 / Revised: 11 May 2021 / Accepted: 11 May 2021 / Published: 14 May 2021
Propolis is a honeybee product known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial effects. It is rich in bioactive molecules whose content varies depending on the botanical and geographical origin of propolis. These bioactive molecules have been studied individually and as a part of propolis extracts, as they can be used as representative markers for propolis standardization. Here, we compare the pharmacological effects of representative polyphenols and whole propolis extracts. Based on the literature data, polyphenols and extracts act by suppressing similar targets, from pro-inflammatory TNF/NF-κB to the pro-proliferative MAPK/ERK pathway. In addition, they activate similar antioxidant mechanisms of action, like Nrf2-ARE intracellular antioxidant pathway, and they all have antimicrobial activity. These similarities do not imply that we should attribute the action of propolis solely to the most representative compounds. Moreover, its pharmacological effects will depend on the efficacy of these compounds’ extraction. Thus, we also give an overview of different propolis extraction technologies, from traditional to modern ones, which are environmentally friendlier. These technologies belong to an open research area that needs further effective solutions in terms of well-standardized liquid and solid extracts, which would be reliable in their pharmacological effects, environmentally friendly, and sustainable for production. View Full-Text
Keywords: propolis; polyphenols; extraction propolis; polyphenols; extraction
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Šuran, J.; Cepanec, I.; Mašek, T.; Radić, B.; Radić, S.; Tlak Gajger, I.; Vlainić, J. Propolis Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds—From Traditional to Modern Extraction Technologies. Molecules 2021, 26, 2930. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102930

AMA Style

Šuran J, Cepanec I, Mašek T, Radić B, Radić S, Tlak Gajger I, Vlainić J. Propolis Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds—From Traditional to Modern Extraction Technologies. Molecules. 2021; 26(10):2930. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102930

Chicago/Turabian Style

Šuran, Jelena, Ivica Cepanec, Tomislav Mašek, Božo Radić, Saša Radić, Ivana Tlak Gajger, and Josipa Vlainić. 2021. "Propolis Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds—From Traditional to Modern Extraction Technologies" Molecules 26, no. 10: 2930. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102930

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop