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Open AccessArticle

Recycling Chocolate Aluminum Wrapping Foil as to Create Electrochemical Metal Strip Electrodes

1
School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Gelugor 11800, Penang, Malaysia
2
School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ, UK
3
School of Physics and Materials Studies, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar, Indera Mahkota, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia
5
Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Technology Faculty, Karabük University, Karabük 78050, Turkey
6
Institut für Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 2, 52074 Aachen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andrew Nelson, Gonzalo García, Deepak Pant and Gregorio F. Ortiz
Molecules 2021, 26(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010021
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 16 November 2020 / Accepted: 24 November 2020 / Published: 23 December 2020
The development of low-cost electrode devices from conductive materials has recently attracted considerable attention as a sustainable means to replace the existing commercially available electrodes. In this study, two different electrode surfaces (surfaces 1 and 2, denoted as S1 and S2) were fabricated from chocolate wrapping aluminum foils. Energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to investigate the elemental composition and surface morphology of the prepared electrodes. Meanwhile, cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to assess the electrical conductivities and the electrochemical activities of the prepared electrodes. It was found that the fabricated electrode strips, particularly the S1 electrode, showed good electrochemical responses and conductivity properties in phosphate buffer (PB) solutions. Interestingly, both of the electrodes can respond to the ruthenium hexamine (Ruhex) redox species. The fundamental results presented from this study indicate that this electrode material can be an inexpensive alternative for the electrode substrate. Overall, our findings indicate that electrodes made from chocolate wrapping materials have promise as electrochemical sensors and can be utilized in various applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: conductive chocolate wrapper; aluminum; low-cost electrode; electrochemical metal strip electrode; and sustainability conductive chocolate wrapper; aluminum; low-cost electrode; electrochemical metal strip electrode; and sustainability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hamzah, H.H.; Saleh, N.H.; Patel, B.A.; Mahat, M.M.; Shafiee, S.A.; Sönmez, T. Recycling Chocolate Aluminum Wrapping Foil as to Create Electrochemical Metal Strip Electrodes. Molecules 2021, 26, 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010021

AMA Style

Hamzah HH, Saleh NH, Patel BA, Mahat MM, Shafiee SA, Sönmez T. Recycling Chocolate Aluminum Wrapping Foil as to Create Electrochemical Metal Strip Electrodes. Molecules. 2021; 26(1):21. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010021

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hamzah, Hairul H.; Saleh, Nur H.; Patel, Bhavik A.; Mahat, Mohd M.; Shafiee, Saiful A.; Sönmez, Turgut. 2021. "Recycling Chocolate Aluminum Wrapping Foil as to Create Electrochemical Metal Strip Electrodes" Molecules 26, no. 1: 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010021

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