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Article

Anti-Microbial, Anti-Oxidant, and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity of Traditionally-Used Medicinal Herbs: A Comparative Analyses of Pharmacology, and Phytoconstituents of Regional Halophytic Plants’ Diaspora

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Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Qassim 51452, Saudi Arabia
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Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, JUST, Irbid 22110, Jordan
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Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11371, Egypt
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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Qassim 51452, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Plant Production and Protection, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, Qassim 51452, Saudi Arabia
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Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo 11231, Egypt
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Pharmacological and Diagnostic Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman 19328, Jordan
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Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71524, Egypt
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Division of Biotechnology, Department of Applied Sciences, University of Technology, Baghdad 35010, Iraq
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College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Qassim 51452, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Medical Laboratory, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Qassim 51452, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Raffaele Capasso and Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5457; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225457
Received: 28 October 2020 / Revised: 17 November 2020 / Accepted: 18 November 2020 / Published: 20 November 2020
Halophytes are the category of plants growing under harsh conditions of super-salinity, and are wide-spread in the coastal Mediterranean climatic conditions and desert oasis. They are adept at surviving through maintaining excessive production of enzymatic, and non-enzymatic secondary metabolites, especially phenolics and flavonoids that primarily work as anti-oxidants and phytoalexins. Five major halophyte species growing in the kingdom’s Qassim’s high-salted desert regions were investigated for confirming their traditionally used biological activity of sugar-control and anti-infectious properties. In this context, the comparative presence of phenolics, and flavonoids together with anti-microbial, anti-oxidants, and the anti-diabetic potentials of the plants’ extracts were investigated through the α-amylase inhibition method. The highest concentrations of phenolics and flavonoids were detected in Salsola imbricata (360 mg/g of the extract as Gallic-Acid-Equivalents/GAE, and 70.5 mg/g of the extract as Rutin-Equivalents/RE). In contrast, the lowest concentrations of phenolics and flavonoids were detected in Salsola cyclophylla (126.6 mg/g GAE, and 20.5 mg/g RE). The halophytes were found rich in trace elements, a factor for water-retention in high-salinity plants, wherein iron and zinc elements were found comparatively in higher concentrations in Aeluropus lagopoides (4113 µg/kg, and 40.1 µg/kg, respectively), while the copper was detected in higher concentration (11.1 µg/kg) in S. imbricata, analyzed through Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometric (ICP-OES) analysis. The anti-oxidant potentials and α-amylase enzyme inhibition-based anti-diabetic activity of S. imbricata was significantly higher than the other halophytes under study, wherein S. cyclophylla exhibited the lowest level of α-amylase inhibition. The maximum DPPH radicals’ (52.47 mg/mL), and α-amylase inhibitions (IC50 22.98 µg/mL) were detected in A.lagopoides. The anti-microbial activity against the Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus was strongly exhibited by Zygophyllum simplex (33 mm Inhibition Zone-Diameter, 50 µg/mL Minimum-Inhibitory-Concentration), while Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans growths were moderately inhibited by Tamarix aphylla. The current findings exhibited significant differences among the locally distributed halophytic plants species with regards to their bioactivity levels, anti-oxidant potentials, and the presence of trace elements. The ongoing data corroborated the plants’ traditional uses in infections and diabetic conditions. The enhanced local distribution of the plants’ diaspora and higher density of occurrence of these plants species in this region, in comparison to their normal climatic condition’s counterparts, seemed to be affected by humans’ use of the species as part of the traditional and alternative medicine over a period of long time. View Full-Text
Keywords: total phenolics; flavonoids; phenols; trace elements; anti-oxidant; anti-microbial; α-amylase enzyme inhibition; anti-diabetics; halophytes; Aeluropus lagopoides; Salsola cyclophylla; Salsola imbricata; Tamarix aphylla; Zygophyllum simplex; methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) total phenolics; flavonoids; phenols; trace elements; anti-oxidant; anti-microbial; α-amylase enzyme inhibition; anti-diabetics; halophytes; Aeluropus lagopoides; Salsola cyclophylla; Salsola imbricata; Tamarix aphylla; Zygophyllum simplex; methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Omar, M.S.; Mohammed, H.A.; Mohammed, S.A.A.; Abd-Elmoniem, E.; Kandil, Y.I.; Eldeeb, H.M.; Chigurupati, S.; Sulaiman, G.M.; Al-Khurayyif, H.K.; Almansour, B.S.; Suryavamshi, P.M.; Khan, R.A. Anti-Microbial, Anti-Oxidant, and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity of Traditionally-Used Medicinal Herbs: A Comparative Analyses of Pharmacology, and Phytoconstituents of Regional Halophytic Plants’ Diaspora. Molecules 2020, 25, 5457. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225457

AMA Style

Al-Omar MS, Mohammed HA, Mohammed SAA, Abd-Elmoniem E, Kandil YI, Eldeeb HM, Chigurupati S, Sulaiman GM, Al-Khurayyif HK, Almansour BS, Suryavamshi PM, Khan RA. Anti-Microbial, Anti-Oxidant, and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity of Traditionally-Used Medicinal Herbs: A Comparative Analyses of Pharmacology, and Phytoconstituents of Regional Halophytic Plants’ Diaspora. Molecules. 2020; 25(22):5457. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225457

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Omar, Mohsen S., Hamdoon A. Mohammed, Salman A.A. Mohammed, Essam Abd-Elmoniem, Yasser I. Kandil, Hussein M. Eldeeb, Sridevi Chigurupati, Ghassan M. Sulaiman, Hadeel K. Al-Khurayyif, Basma S. Almansour, Prarthana M. Suryavamshi, and Riaz A. Khan. 2020. "Anti-Microbial, Anti-Oxidant, and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity of Traditionally-Used Medicinal Herbs: A Comparative Analyses of Pharmacology, and Phytoconstituents of Regional Halophytic Plants’ Diaspora" Molecules 25, no. 22: 5457. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225457

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