Mechanisms of Aging and the Preventive Effects of Resveratrol on Age-Related Diseases
Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, BK21-PLUS, Korea University, Seoul 02846, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4649; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204649
Received: 7 August 2020 / Revised: 29 September 2020 / Accepted: 3 October 2020 / Published: 12 October 2020
Aging gradually decreases cellular biological functions and increases the risk of age-related diseases. Cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders are commonly classified as age-related diseases that can affect the lifespan and health of individuals. Aging is a complicated and sophisticated biological process involving damage to biochemical macromolecules including DNA, proteins, and cellular organelles such as mitochondria. Aging causes multiple alterations in biological processes including energy metabolism and nutrient sensing, thus reducing cell proliferation and causing cellular senescence. Among the polyphenolic phytochemicals, resveratrol is believed to reduce the negative effects of the aging process through its multiple biological activities. Resveratrol increases the lifespan of several model organisms by regulating oxidative stress, energy metabolism, nutrient sensing, and epigenetics, primarily by activating sirtuin 1. This review summarizes the most important biological mechanisms of aging, and the ability of resveratrol to prevent age-related diseases.