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Article

Maillard Reaction Intermediates and Related Phytochemicals in Black Garlic Determined by EPR and HPLC Analyses

1
Division of Regional Innovation, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-Cho, Hirosaki 036-8564, Japan
2
Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Bunkyo-Cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561, Japan
3
Aomori Prefectural Industrial Technology Research Center, Agricultural Products Institute, 91 Kamikita-Gun Rokunohe-Machi Inuotose Yanagisawa, Aomori 033-0071, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: José Pinela, Lillian Barros and Maria Ines Dias
Molecules 2020, 25(19), 4578; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194578
Received: 9 September 2020 / Revised: 3 October 2020 / Accepted: 6 October 2020 / Published: 7 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measurement of Antioxidant Activity: Advances and Perspectives)
The Maillard reaction intermediates and related phytochemicals in garlic (Allium sativum L.), which was heated for various lengths of time, using X-band (9 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were investigated. Non-spin-trap and non-destructive EPR detected the total reaction intermediates (radicals). The g-value of the signal was 2.004. The signal with a peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔHpp) was approximately 0.67 milli Tesla (mT). The values of the intermediates are suggestive of organic compounds. The garlic darkened in color with the increasing number of heating days. Melanoidin, responsible for darkening of the garlic, was detected at an absorbance of 400 nm. Analysis of the correlation between the EPR intensity and melanoidin absorbance showed a good correlation coefficient (0.98). In addition, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) and total phenolic compounds increased with the increasing number of heating days. Moreover, trace amount of Fe3+ was observed in the black garlic by EPR. Non-destructive EPR is a useful method for evaluating not only Maillard reaction intermediates, but also the pigment associated with the reaction processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: black garlic; Maillard reaction; intermediate; EPR; HPLC; radical black garlic; Maillard reaction; intermediate; EPR; HPLC; radical
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nakagawa, K.; Maeda, H.; Yamaya, Y.; Tonosaki, Y. Maillard Reaction Intermediates and Related Phytochemicals in Black Garlic Determined by EPR and HPLC Analyses. Molecules 2020, 25, 4578. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194578

AMA Style

Nakagawa K, Maeda H, Yamaya Y, Tonosaki Y. Maillard Reaction Intermediates and Related Phytochemicals in Black Garlic Determined by EPR and HPLC Analyses. Molecules. 2020; 25(19):4578. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194578

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nakagawa, Kouichi, Hayato Maeda, Yoshifumi Yamaya, and Yudai Tonosaki. 2020. "Maillard Reaction Intermediates and Related Phytochemicals in Black Garlic Determined by EPR and HPLC Analyses" Molecules 25, no. 19: 4578. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194578

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