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In Vitro Anthelmintic Evaluation of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Pithecellobium dulce: Fingerprint Analysis of Extracts by UHPLC-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry

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Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad del Tolima, Ibagué 730001, Colombia
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Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nuñoa, Santiago 7800024, Chile
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Grupo de Investigación e Innovación en Salud y Bienestar Animal, Laboratorio de Salud Animal, Centro de Investigación Tibaitatá, Agrosavia, Mosquera 250047, Colombia
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Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad de Cundinamarca, Fusagasugá 252212, Colombia
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Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas, Universidad de Ibagué, Carrera 22 Calle 67, Ibagué 730002, Colombia
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Instituto de Farmacia, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 5090000, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3002; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133002
Received: 3 May 2020 / Revised: 17 May 2020 / Accepted: 20 May 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
In the present work, the anthelmintic activity (AA) of ethanolic extracts obtained from Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Pithecellobium dulce was evaluated using the third-stage-larval (L3) exsheathment inhibition test (LEIT) and egg hatch test (EHT) on Haemonchus contortus. Extracts were tested at concentrations of 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/mL. The larval exsheathment inhibition (LEI) results showed that G. sepium achieved the highest average inhibition of 91.2%, compared with 44.6% for P. dulce and 41.0% for L. leucocephala at a concentration of 40 mg/mL; the corresponding IC50 values were 22.4, 41.7, and 43.3 mg/mL, respectively. The rates of egg hatching inhibition (EHI) at a concentration of 5 mg/mL were 99.5% for G. sepium, 64.2% for P. dulce, and 54% for L. leucocephala; the corresponding IC50 values were 1.9 mg/mL for G. sepium, 3.9 mg/mL for P. dulce, and 4.3 mg/mL for L. leucocephala. The species extracts studied here were also analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/Orbitrap/MS/MS), resulting in the compounds’ identification associated with AA. Glycosylated flavonoids and methoxyphenols were observed in all three species: fatty acids in G. sepium and P. dulce; phenylpropanoids, anthraquinone glycosides, amino acids and glycosylated phenolic acids in G. sepium; and flavonoids in L. leucocephala. Comparatively, G. sepium presented a greater diversity of compounds potentially active against the control of gastrointestinal nematodes, which was associated with the results obtained in the applied tests. View Full-Text
Keywords: Gliricidia sepium; Leucaena leucocephala; Pithecellobium dulce; UHPLC-MS; anthelminthic; Haemonchus contortus Gliricidia sepium; Leucaena leucocephala; Pithecellobium dulce; UHPLC-MS; anthelminthic; Haemonchus contortus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Romero, N.; Areche, C.; Cubides-Cárdenas, J.; Escobar, N.; García-Beltrán, O.; Simirgiotis, M.J.; Céspedes, Á. In Vitro Anthelmintic Evaluation of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Pithecellobium dulce: Fingerprint Analysis of Extracts by UHPLC-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry. Molecules 2020, 25, 3002. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133002

AMA Style

Romero N, Areche C, Cubides-Cárdenas J, Escobar N, García-Beltrán O, Simirgiotis MJ, Céspedes Á. In Vitro Anthelmintic Evaluation of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Pithecellobium dulce: Fingerprint Analysis of Extracts by UHPLC-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry. Molecules. 2020; 25(13):3002. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133002

Chicago/Turabian Style

Romero, Néstor, Carlos Areche, Jaime Cubides-Cárdenas, Natalia Escobar, Olimpo García-Beltrán, Mario J. Simirgiotis, and Ángel Céspedes. 2020. "In Vitro Anthelmintic Evaluation of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Pithecellobium dulce: Fingerprint Analysis of Extracts by UHPLC-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry" Molecules 25, no. 13: 3002. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133002

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