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The Similarities between Human Mitochondria and Bacteria in the Context of Structure, Genome, and Base Excision Repair System

DNA Damage Laboratory of Food Science Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, ul. Muszynskiego 1, 90-151 Lodz, Poland
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Academic Editor: Kamelija Zarkovic
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2857; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122857
Received: 19 May 2020 / Revised: 17 June 2020 / Accepted: 19 June 2020 / Published: 21 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Molecular Medicine)
Mitochondria emerged from bacterial ancestors during endosymbiosis and are crucial for cellular processes such as energy production and homeostasis, stress responses, cell survival, and more. They are the site of aerobic respiration and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in eukaryotes. However, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is also the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are both important and dangerous for the cell. Human mitochondria contain mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and its integrity may be endangered by the action of ROS. Fortunately, human mitochondria have repair mechanisms that allow protecting mtDNA and repairing lesions that may contribute to the occurrence of mutations. Mutagenesis of the mitochondrial genome may manifest in the form of pathological states such as mitochondrial, neurodegenerative, and/or cardiovascular diseases, premature aging, and cancer. The review describes the mitochondrial structure, genome, and the main mitochondrial repair mechanism (base excision repair (BER)) of oxidative lesions in the context of common features between human mitochondria and bacteria. The authors present a holistic view of the similarities of mitochondria and bacteria to show that bacteria may be an interesting experimental model for studying mitochondrial diseases, especially those where the mechanism of DNA repair is impaired. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitochondria; mtDNA; DNA repair; BER; ROS mitochondria; mtDNA; DNA repair; BER; ROS
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Boguszewska, K.; Szewczuk, M.; Kaźmierczak-Barańska, J.; Karwowski, B.T. The Similarities between Human Mitochondria and Bacteria in the Context of Structure, Genome, and Base Excision Repair System. Molecules 2020, 25, 2857.

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