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Editorial

Peptide Therapeutics 2.0

1
KwaZulu-Natal Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform (KRISP), School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa
2
Peptide Science Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, Durban 4000, South Africa
3
CIBER-BBN, Networking Centre on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Institute for Advanced Chemistry of Catalonia (IQAC-CSIC), 08034 Barcelona, Spain
4
Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Martí i Franqués 1-11, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2293; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102293
Received: 6 May 2020 / Accepted: 8 May 2020 / Published: 13 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Therapeutics 2.0)
In recent years, the peptide drug discovery field has shown a high level of dynamism, with hundreds of academic groups working on this topic, the creation of new peptide-focused companies, and the consolidation of peptide business by so-called big pharma [1,2,3,4].
In the last five years (2015–2019), the U.S. Food Drug Administration (FDA) have authorized a total of 208 new drugs (150 new chemical entities and 58 biologics) [5,6], 15 of which were peptides or peptide-containing molecules (Table 1), which account for 7% of the total number of drugs [4,7]. This is a rather impressive number, if we consider the efforts of the pharmaceutical industry in peptides in comparison to small molecules (in the context of this work, a peptide is defined as a compound that contains two or more amino acids linked by an amide (peptide) bond and that can be synthesized chemically).
The chemical structure and medical indication of the active principle ingredient of these drugs show an excellent representation of the diversity of the peptide world.
From a chemical structure perspective, it is possible to find small peptides (Ninlar®, Macrilen®); medium-sized peptides (Giapreza®, Scenesse®); homodetic (through amide bonds) cyclic peptides (Vyleesi®); intra- and intermolecular disulfide-containing peptides (Parsabiv®, containing almost exclusively D-amino acids; Trulance®); large peptides (Tymlos®, Lixisenatide®), which in some cases are branched (Ozempic®, Tresiba®); and peptides containing radionuclides [Lutathera®, 68Ga DOTA-TOC (68Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N’,N’’,N’’’-tetraacetic acid-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide)]. In the case of the two antibody drug conjugates (ADC) PADCEV® and Polivy®, the payload is the peptide monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), a synthetic analog of the marine natural peptide dolastatin 10. MMAE is also the drug contained in Adcetris®, which was approved by the FDA in 2011. Of the seven FDA-approved ADCs to date, three contain a peptide. Moreover, PADCEV® and Polivy® contain the dipeptide Val-Cit as a linker. Another peptide-based linker, Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly, is present in the ADC Enhertu®, which was authorized by the FDA in 2019.
Oncology, with five drugs (two radio peptides and two ADCs), metabolism (three), and endocrinology (two) are the most frequent medical indications for peptides. However, cardiovascular conditions, gastroenterology, bone diseases, dermatology, and sexual dysfunction are also targeted by peptides.
Of note, between 2015 and 2019, several of the new peptide-based drugs accepted by the FDA came about from the efforts of academic groups. This highlights the importance of fostering solid and efficient cooperation channels between academia and industry with the aim to maintain and improve the well-being of society.
In addition to the use of peptides as drugs or in diagnostics, these molecules are playing an increasingly important role as drug delivery systems and as the base for new biomaterials with broad potential applications in medicine.
This analysis supports the strength of peptides in the medicinal field. In this context, we have decided to publish a Special Issue in Molecules, termed “Peptide Therapeutics 2.0”, which contains excellent quality research articles and comprehensive reviews on peptides. It is hoped that some of the peptides introduced herein will reach the market in the coming years.

Author Contributions

B.G.d.l.T. and F.A. equally contributed in writing the article. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

The work in the laboratory authors was funded in part by the following: the National Research Foundation (NRF) and the University of KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), MINECO (RTI2018-093831-B-100), and the Generalitat de Catalunya (2017 SGR 1439) (Spain).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Albericio, F.; Kruger, H.G. Therapeutic Peptides. Future Med. Chem. 2012, 4, 1527–1531. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  2. Henninot, A.; Collins, J.C.; Nuss, J.M. The Current State of Peptide Drug Discovery: Back to the Future? J. Med. Chem. 2018, 61, 1382–1414. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Lau, J.L.; Dunn, M.K. Therapeutic peptides: Historical perspectives, current development trends, and future directions. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2018, 26, 2700–2707. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Al Shaer, D.; Al Musaimi, O.; Albericio, F.; de la Torre, B.G. 2019 FDA TIDES (Peptides and Oligonucleotides) harvest. Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13, 40. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  5. Novel Drug Approvals for 2015. Available online: https://www.fda.gov/drugs/new-drugs-fda-cders-new-molecular-entities-and-new-therapeutic-biological-products/novel-drug-approvals-2015 (accessed on 1 May 2020).
  6. De la Torre, B.G.; Albericio, F. The pharmaceutical industry in 2019. An analysis of FDA drug approvals from the perspective of molecules. Molecules 2020, 25, 745. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  7. Al Shaer, D.; Al Musaimi, O.; Albericio, F.; de la Torre, B.G. 2018 FDA TIDES harvest. Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
Table 1. Peptide-based drugs approved by the Food Drug Administration (FDA) (2015–2019) [3,4,5,6].
Table 1. Peptide-based drugs approved by the Food Drug Administration (FDA) (2015–2019) [3,4,5,6].
YearActive Ingredient
Trade Name
IndicationFeatures
2015Insulin degludec
Tresiba®
DiabetesModified insulin with an aa deletion and a hexadecanedioic acid via γ-Glu at the Lys (B29)
2015Ixazomib
Ninlar®
Multiple myelomaN-Acylated, C-boronic acid dipeptide
2016Adlyxin
Lixisenatide®
Diabetes44 aa GLP-1 peptide with (Lys)6 at the C-terminal
2017Abaloparatide
Tymlos®
Osteoporosis34 aa analog of parathyroid hormone-related protein
2017Angiotensin II
Giapreza®
HypotensionNatural octapeptide
2017Etelcalcetide
Parsabiv®
HyperparathyroidismAc-DCys-DAla-(DArg)3-DAla-DArg-NH2 linked to L-Cys through a disulfide bridge
2017Macimorelin
Macrilen®
Growth hormone deficiencyPseudotripeptide N-formylated
2017Plecanatide
Trulance®
Chronic idiopathic constipation16 aa with two disulfides
2017Semaglutide
Ozempic®
DiabetesGLP-1 peptide (31 aa in the chain) with hexadecanedioic acid via γ-Glu and mini PEG at Lys
2018177Lu DOTA-TATE
Lutathera®
Neuroendocrine tumors, theranostic177Lu chelated by DOTA bound to Tyr3-octreotate
201968Ga DOTA-TOCNeuroendocrine tumors, diagnostic68Ga chelated by DOTA bound to Tyr3-octreotide
2019Afamelanotide
Scenesse®
Skin damage and pain13 aa lineal peptide analog of α-MSH
2019Bremelanotide
Vyleesi®
Women hypoactive sexual desire7 aa cyclic peptide analog of α-MSH
2019Enfortumab Vedotin-Ejfv PADCEV®Cancers expressing Nectin-4ADC with a synthetic analog of the marine natural peptide dolastatin 10
2019Polatuzumab Vedotin-Piiq Polivy®Diffuse large B-cell lymphomaADC with a synthetic analog of dolastatin 10 (5-residue peptide alcohol)

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MDPI and ACS Style

de la Torre, B.G.; Albericio, F. Peptide Therapeutics 2.0. Molecules 2020, 25, 2293. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102293

AMA Style

de la Torre BG, Albericio F. Peptide Therapeutics 2.0. Molecules. 2020; 25(10):2293. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102293

Chicago/Turabian Style

de la Torre, Beatriz G., and Fernando Albericio. 2020. "Peptide Therapeutics 2.0" Molecules 25, no. 10: 2293. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102293

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