A Limonoid, 7-Deacetoxy-7-Oxogedunin (CG-1) from Andiroba (Carapa guianensis, Meliaceae) Lowers the Accumulation of Intracellular Lipids in Adipocytes via Suppression of IRS-1/Akt-Mediated Glucose Uptake and a Decrease in GLUT4 Expression
Department of Pathobiochemistry, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094, Japan
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1668; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091668
Received: 7 April 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 28 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products in Prevention and Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome)
Limonoids are phytochemicals with a variety of biological properties. In the present study, we elucidated the molecular mechanism of suppression of adipogenesis in adipocytes by a limonoid, 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin (CG-1) from Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae), known as andiroba. CG-1 reduced the accumulation of intracellular triglycerides in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression levels of the adipogenic, lipogenic, and lipolytic genes were decreased by CG-1 treatment, whereas the glycerol release level was not affected. When CG-1 was added into the medium during days 0-2 of 6-days-adipogenesis, the accumulation of intracellular lipids and the mRNA levels of the adipogenesis-related genes were decreased. In addition, the phosphorylation level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and Akt in the early phase of adipocyte differentiation (within 1 day after initiating adipocyte differentiation) was reduced by CG-1. Furthermore, insulin-activated translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the plasma membranes in adipocytes was suppressed by CG-1, followed by decreased glucose uptake into the cells. These results indicate that an andiroba limonoid CG-1 suppressed the accumulation of intracellular lipids in the early phase of adipocyte differentiation through repression of IRS-1/Akt-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes.