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Open AccessArticle

Liquid Phase and Microwave-Assisted Extractions for Multicomponent Phenolic Pattern Determination of Five Romanian Galium Species Coupled with Bioassays

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, “Iuliu Haţieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Department of Analytical Chemistry, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, SK-04180 Košice, Slovakia
3
Department of Environmental Sciences, Babeș-Bolyai University, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
4
Department of Pharmacy, University “G. D’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
5
Department of Food Science, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
6
Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, 06132 Perugia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071226
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
Background: Galium is a plant rich in iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and small amounts of essential oils and vitamin C. Recent works showed the antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and antioxidant activity of this plant genus. Methods: For the determination of the multicomponent phenolic pattern, liquid phase microextraction procedures were applied, combined with HPLC-PDA instrument configuration in five Galium species aerial parts (G. verum, G. album, G. rivale, G. pseudoaristatum, and G. purpureum). Dispersive Liquid–Liquid MicroExtraction (DLLME) with NaCl and NAtural Deep Eutectic Solvent (NADES) medium and Ultrasound-Assisted (UA)-DLLME with β-cyclodextrin medium were optimized. Results: The optimal DLLME conditions were found to be: 10 mg of the sample, 10% NaCl, 15% NADES or 1% β-cyclodextrin as extraction solvent—400 μL of ethyl acetate as dispersive solvent—300 μL of ethanol, vortex time—30 s, extraction time—1 min, centrifugation at 12000× g for 5 min. Conclusions: These results were compared with microwave-assisted extraction procedures. G. purpureum and G. verum extracts showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content, respectively. The most potent extract in terms of antioxidant capacity was obtained from G. purpureum, whereas the extract obtained from G. album exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect against tyrosinase. View Full-Text
Keywords: dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction; microwave-assisted extraction; natural deep eutectic solvent; β-cyclodextrin; Galium species; tyrosinase inhibition dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction; microwave-assisted extraction; natural deep eutectic solvent; β-cyclodextrin; Galium species; tyrosinase inhibition
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Mocan, A.; Diuzheva, A.; Bădărău, S.; Moldovan, C.; Andruch, V.; Carradori, S.; Campestre, C.; Tartaglia, A.; De Simone, M.; Vodnar, D.; Tiecco, M.; Germani, R.; Crișan, G.; Locatelli, M. Liquid Phase and Microwave-Assisted Extractions for Multicomponent Phenolic Pattern Determination of Five Romanian Galium Species Coupled with Bioassays. Molecules 2019, 24, 1226.

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