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Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061038

Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Chloroplast Genome of Angelica polymorpha and the Development of a Novel Indel Marker for Species Identification

1
Herbal Medicine Resources Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Naju 58245, Korea
2
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
3
Phyzen Genomics Institute, Seongnam 13558, Korea
4
Department of Biology Education, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 77, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract

The genus Angelica (Apiaceae) comprises valuable herbal medicines. In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast (CP) genome sequence of A. polymorpha and compared it with that of Ligusticum officinale (GenBank accession no. NC039760). The CP genomes of A. polymorpha and L. officinale were 148,430 and 147,127 bp in length, respectively, with 37.6% GC content. Both CP genomes harbored 113 unique functional genes, including 79 protein-coding, four rRNA, and 30 tRNA genes. Comparative analysis of the two CP genomes revealed conserved genome structure, gene content, and gene order. However, highly variable regions, sufficient to distinguish between A. polymorpha and L. officinale, were identified in hypothetical chloroplast open reading frame1 (ycf1) and ycf2 genic regions. Nucleotide diversity (Pi) analysis indicated that ycf4–chloroplast envelope membrane protein (cemA) intergenic region was highly variable between the two species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. polymorpha and L. officinale were well clustered at family Apiaceae. The ycf4-cemA intergenic region in A. polymorpha carried a 418 bp deletion compared with L. officinale. This region was used for the development of a novel indel marker, LYCE, which successfully discriminated between A. polymorpha and L. officinale accessions. Our results provide important taxonomic and phylogenetic information on herbal medicines and facilitate their authentication using the indel marker. View Full-Text
Keywords: Angelica polymorpha; Ligusticum officinale; plastid; herbal medicine; molecular marker Angelica polymorpha; Ligusticum officinale; plastid; herbal medicine; molecular marker
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Park, I.; Yang, S.; Kim, W.J.; Song, J.-H.; Lee, H.-S.; Lee, H.O.; Lee, J.-H.; Ahn, S.-N.; Moon, B.C. Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Chloroplast Genome of Angelica polymorpha and the Development of a Novel Indel Marker for Species Identification. Molecules 2019, 24, 1038.

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