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Molecules 2019, 24(4), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040711

Optimization of an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Condition for Flavonoid Compounds from Cocoa Shells (Theobroma cacao) Using Response Surface Methodology

1
Malaysia Cocoa Board, Cocoa Innovative and Technology Centre, Lot 12621 Nilai Industrial Area, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
2
Halal Products Research Institute, University Putra Malaysia, Putra Infoport, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
5
Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 16 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
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Abstract

This study investigates the ultrasound-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Malaysian cocoa shell extracts, and optimization using response surface methodology. There are three variables involved in this study, namely: ethanol concentration (70–90 v/v %), temperature (45–65 °C), and ultrasound irradiation time (30–60 min). All of the data were collected and analyzed for variance (ANOVA). The coefficient of determination (R2) and the model was significant in interaction between all variables (98% and p < 0.0001, respectively). In addition, the lack of fit test for the model was not of significance, with p > 0.0684. The ethanol concentration, temperature, and ultrasound irradiation time that yielded the maximum value of the total flavonoid content (TFC; 7.47 mg RE/g dried weight (DW)) was 80%, 55 °C, and 45 min, respectively. The optimum value from the validation of the experimental TFC was 7.23 ± 0.15 mg of rutin, equivalent per gram of extract with ethanol concentration, temperature, and ultrasound irradiation time values of 74.20%, 49.99 °C, and 42.82 min, respectively. While the modelled equation fits the data, the T-test is not significant, suggesting that the experimental values agree with those predicted by the response surface methodology models. View Full-Text
Keywords: cocoa shell; ultrasound-assisted extraction; response surface methodology; flavonoids cocoa shell; ultrasound-assisted extraction; response surface methodology; flavonoids
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Md Yusof, A.H.; Abd Gani, S.S.; Zaidan, U.H.; Halmi, M.I.E.; Zainudin, B.H. Optimization of an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Condition for Flavonoid Compounds from Cocoa Shells (Theobroma cacao) Using Response Surface Methodology. Molecules 2019, 24, 711.

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