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Open AccessArticle

‘Seeing’ Strain in Soft Materials

Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723, USA
Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Elisabete C.B.A. Alegria and Maximilian N. Kopylovich
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 542;
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanically Responsive Materials and Their Applications)
Several technologies can be used for measuring strains of soft materials under high rate impact conditions. These technologies include high speed tensile test, split Hopkinson pressure bar test, digital image correlation and high speed X-ray imaging. However, none of these existing technologies can produce a continuous 3D spatial strain distribution in the test specimen. Here we report a novel passive strain sensor based on poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) elastomer with covalently incorporated spiropyran (SP) mechanophore to measure impact induced strains. We have shown that the incorporation of SP into PDMS at 0.25 wt% level can adequately measure impact strains via color change under a high strain rate of 1500 s−1 within a fraction of a millisecond. Further, the color change is fully reversible and thus can be used repeatedly. This technology has a high potential to be used for quantifying brain strain for traumatic brain injury applications.
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Keywords: spiropyran; impact strain; poly(dimethyl siloxane); mechanophore; strain sensing spiropyran; impact strain; poly(dimethyl siloxane); mechanophore; strain sensing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xia, Z.; Alphonse, V.D.; Trigg, D.B.; Harrigan, T.P.; Paulson, J.M.; Luong, Q.T.; Lloyd, E.P.; Barbee, M.H.; Craig, S.L. ‘Seeing’ Strain in Soft Materials. Molecules 2019, 24, 542.

AMA Style

Xia Z, Alphonse VD, Trigg DB, Harrigan TP, Paulson JM, Luong QT, Lloyd EP, Barbee MH, Craig SL. ‘Seeing’ Strain in Soft Materials. Molecules. 2019; 24(3):542.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xia, Zhiyong; Alphonse, Vanessa D.; Trigg, Doug B.; Harrigan, Tim P.; Paulson, Jeff M.; Luong, Quang T.; Lloyd, Evan P.; Barbee, Meredith H.; Craig, Stephen L. 2019. "‘Seeing’ Strain in Soft Materials" Molecules 24, no. 3: 542.

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